废弃号一路前行

heaven什么意思(heaven什么意思英语)

诚 chéng Sincerity

“诚”是儒家思想的核心概念之一,其基本含义是真实无妄。儒家认为,“诚”是“天道”或“天理”的本质,是万物得以存在的根据。同时,“诚”也是道德的本原和基础,一切道德的行为必须建立在内心真实无妄之上,否则便是虚妄,《中庸》称之为“不诚无物”。圣人以“诚”为本性,其言行自然与“天道”“天理”相合;君子则以“诚”作为道德修养的目标以及达于“天道”“天理”的途径。

Sincerity is among the coreconcepts of the Confucian school of thought. Basically, it means truthfulnesswithout deceit. Confucians believed that sincerity is the essence of the “way of heaven” or “principles of heaven,” a basis on which everything else is built. At the same time,sincerity is also the root and foundation of morality. All moral deeds must beconducted on the basis of sincerity from the bottom of the heart. Otherwise,they are nothing but pretensions. The Doctrine of the Mean maintains, “Nothing can be achieved without sincerity.”Sages are sincere by nature. Therefore, their words and deeds are naturallyconsistent with the “way of heaven” and the “principles of heaven.” Junzi (a man of virtue) upholds sincerity as his goal for moralattainment and an approach to achieving the “way ofheaven” and the “principles ofheaven.”

例句 Examples:

◎诚者,天之道也;诚之者,人之道也。(《礼记?中庸》)

(“诚”,是天的法则;达到“诚”,是人的修养路径。)

Sincerity is the way of nature;to be a sincere person is the way to achieve self-refinement. (The Book ofRites)

◎诚者,真实无妄之谓,天理之本然也。(朱熹《中庸章句》)

(“诚”就是真实不伪诈,是天理本来的状态。)

Sincerity means uttertruthfulness without any pretensions or deceit. It is the natural state of theprinciples of heaven. (Zhu Xi: Annotations on The Doctrine of the Mean)

道 dào Dao (Way)

本义指人所行之路,引申而有三重含义:其一,指不同领域的事物所遵循的法则,如日月星辰运行的规律称为天道,人事活动所遵循的规律称为人道;其二,指万事万物所遵循的普遍法则;其三,指事物的本原或本体,超越于有形的具体事物,是万物生成的基始,又是万物存在和人类行为的根据。儒家、道家、佛教等都谈论道,其内涵差异甚大。儒家之道以仁义礼乐为基本内容,佛教和道家之道偏重“空”“无”方面的意义。

In its original meaning, dao (道) is the wayor path taken by people. It has three extended meanings: 1) the general lawsfollowed by things in different spheres, e.g. the natural order by which thesun, moon and stars move is called the way of heaven; the rules that governhuman activities are the way of man; 2) the universal patterns followed by allthings and beings; and 3) the original source or ontological existence ofthings, which transcends form and constitutes the basis for the birth andexistence of all things, and for the activities of human beings. In their respectivediscussions of Dao, Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism imbue it with verydifferent connotations. While benevolence, righteousness, social norms, andmusic education form the basic content of the Confucian Dao, the Buddhist andDaoist Dao tends to emphasize kong (空 emptiness) and wu(无 void).

例句 Examples:

◎天道远,人道迩。(《左传?昭公十八年》)

(天之道遥远,人事之道切近。)

The way of heaven is far away;the way of man is near. (Zuo’s Commentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals)

◎形而上者谓之道。(《周易?系辞上》)

(有形之上者称为道。)

What transcends form is calledDao. (The Book of Changes)

德 dé De

“德”有两种不同含义:其一,指个人的良好品格或人们在社会共同生活中的良好品行。“德”原初的意义与行为有关,主要指外在的道德行为,后兼指与道德行为相应的内在的情感、意识,“德”被认为是外在的道德行为与内在的道德情感、道德意识的结合。其二,指事物从“道”所得的特殊规律或特性,是幽隐无形的“道”的具体显现,也是事物产生和存在的内在依据。

The term has two differentmeanings. One is an individual’s fine moral character, or his proper conduct insociety. At first de (德) was only related to anindividual’s behavior, referring to his external moralconduct. Later, it also referred to something that combined external behaviorwith internal emotions and moral consciousness. The other meaning of de refersto the special laws and features obtained from Dao, or the physicalmanifestation of the hidden and formless Dao, as well as the internal basis forthe origination and existence of all things.

例句 Examples:

◎天生烝民,有物有则,民之秉彝,好是懿德。(《诗经?大雅?烝民》)

(上天降生众民,有事物就有法则,民众遵守普遍的法则,崇好这样的美德。)

Heaven gives birth to people,provides them with goods and materials, and subjects them to rules. People obeyuniversal rules and value virtues. (The Book of Songs)

◎道生之,德畜之。(《老子?五十一章》)

(道生成万物,德蓄养万物。)

Dao creates all things underheaven while de nurtures them. (Laozi)

理 lǐ Li

本义指玉石的纹理,引申而有三重含义:其一,指具体事物的样式或性质,如短长、大小、方圆、坚脆、轻重、白黑等物理属性;其二,指万事万物所遵循的普遍法则;其三,指事物的本原或本体。后两种含义与“道”相近。宋明时期的学者特别注重对“理”的阐发,以“理”为最高范畴,因此宋明时期占主导地位的学术体系被称为“理学”。

The original meaning of li (理) was thetexture of jade; later it was extended to contain three meanings: 1) thephysical forms or proprieties of things, such as length, size, shape, tensilestrength, weight, and color; 2) the universal laws followed by all things andbeings; and 3) the original source or ontological existence of things. The lasttwo meanings are similar to those of Dao. Scholars of the Song and Mingdynasties were particularly interested in describing and explaining thephilosophy known as li (理), and considered it as thehighest realm, giving rise to the School of Principle which dominated academicthought in the period from the Song to the Ming dynasties.

例句 Examples:

◎物无妄然,必由其理。(王弼《周易略例》)

(事物没有随意而为的,必然会因循其理。)

Nothing happens at random; eachfollows its own li (laws). (Wang Bi: A Brief Exposition of The Book of Changes)

◎有物必有则,一物须有一理。(《二程遗书》卷十八)

(每一事物的存在必有其法则,但所有事物都须有万物皆同的理。)

Everything exists according toits objective law but all things must follow the common li (law). (Writings ofthe Cheng Brothers)

气 qì Qi (Vital Force)

独立于主观意识之外的物质实体,是构成一切有形之物的原始物质材料,同时也是生命和精神得以发生和存在的基础。此外,某些思想家还为“气”赋予了道德属性。“气”没有具体的形状,永远处于运动变化之中。“气”的凝聚意味着事物的生成,“气”的消散意味着事物的消亡。“气”贯通于所有有形之物的内外。哲学意义上的“气”与常识性的“气体”概念不同,“气体”指各种非液体、非固体的存在;而从哲学层面来看,液体、固体既是有形之物,其生成、存在也是“气”凝聚的结果。

Qi (vital force) has a materialexistence independent of subjective consciousness and is the basic element ofall physical beings. It is also the basis for the birth and existence of lifeand spirit. In addition, some thinkers have given a moral attribute to qi. Qiis in constant motion and change, and has no specific shape. Its concentrationgives birth to a thing and its evaporation signals the end of that thing. Qipermeates all physical beings and their surroundings. Qi, as a philosophicalconcept, is different from what is commonly understood by the word qi (气), namely,gas. Although things in liquid or solid form are different from things in gasform, from the perspective of the ancient Chinese philosophy, their formationand existence are the result of the concentration of qi.

例句 Examples:

◎通天下一气耳。(《庄子?知北游》)

(贯通天下万物的就是一个“气”罢了。)

It is qi that permeateseverything under heaven. (Zhuangzi)

◎天地合气,万物自生。(王充《论衡?自然》)

(天地之气相互交合,万物自然而生。)

The convergence of qi of heavenand that of earth gives life to all things. (Wang Chong: A Comparative Study ofDifferent Schools of Learning)

情 qíng Qing

“情”有三种不同含义:其一,泛指人的情感、欲望。“情”受外物感动而发,是人的自然本能,不是后天习得的。其二,特指人的某些情感、欲望,通常被规定为好、恶、喜、怒、哀、乐等六者,或喜、怒、哀、惧、爱、恶、欲等七者。前者也被称作“六志”或“六情”,后者被称作“七情”。其三,指情实或实情。对于前两个意义上的“情”,历代学者持有不同态度,或主张抑制“情”,或承认“情”的合理性而加以引导和安处。

The term has three differentmeanings. First, it means human emotions and desires, referring to the naturaland instinctive reaction to external circumstances, not a learned response.Second, it refers to specific human emotions and desires, commonly known as thesix human emotions: love, hatred, happiness, anger, sadness, and joy, or as theseven human emotions: happiness, anger, sadness, fear, love, hatred, anddesire. Third, it means the true state of affairs, or actual situation. Forcenturies, scholars have had different interpretations on the first two meanings.Some advocated that emotions should be restrained or controlled, while othersbelieved that emotions and desires were natural and should be properly guided.

例句 Examples:

◎何谓人情?喜、怒、哀、惧、爱、恶、欲,七者弗学而能。(《礼记?礼运》)

(什么叫做人之情?就是喜爱、恼怒、悲哀、恐惧、爱慕、憎恶、欲求,这七者不用学习就能产生。)

What are human emotions? Theyare happiness, anger, sadness, fear, love, hatred, and desire that ariseinstinctively. (The Book of Rites)

◎上好信,则民莫敢不用情。(《论语?子路》)

(地位高的人讲求诚信,则民众没有人敢不以实情相待。)

If those in high positions actin good faith, the people will not dare to conceal the truths. (The Analects)

趣 qù Qu

指文学艺术作品中所表现的作者的志趣、情趣、意趣等。作者的“趣”决定他们对自然、人生的独特体验和理解,以及对作品主题的选择和作品的表现风格。“趣”是作品中无形的精神韵味,通过审美活动而体现出它的价值与品位高下。

Qu is the aspirations, emotions,and interests expressed in the work of awriter or artist. His pursuit of qu determines his unique perception andcomprehension of nature and life. It also determines what theme he chooses forhis work and how he gives expression to it. Qu is invisible but manifests its value and appeal through aestheticappreciation.

例句 Examples:

◎(嵇)康善谈理,又能属文,其高情远趣,率然玄远。(《晋书?嵇康传》)

(嵇康善谈玄理,又擅长写作,他的情趣高雅,率真而旷远。)

Ji Kang was good at explainingprofundities and writing. He had a high style and fine taste. A forthright andbroad-minded man, indeed! (The Jin History)

◎世人所难得者唯趣。趣如山上之色,水中之味,花中之光,女中之态,虽善说者不能下一语,唯会心者知之。……夫趣得之自然者深,得之学问者浅。(袁宏道《叙陈正甫〈会心集〉》)

(世人难以领悟的只有“趣”。“趣”好比山的颜色、水的味道、花的光彩、女人的姿容,即使擅长言辞的人也不能一句话说清楚,只有领会于心的人知道它。……趣,如果从自然之性中得来,那是深层次的“趣”;如果从学问中得来,往往是肤浅的“趣”。)

The only thing really hard tounderstand in the world is qu. Qu is like the hues of hills, the taste ofwater, the splendor of flowers, or the beauty of a woman. Even an eloquentperson can hardly find words to put it clearly. Only those with empathy know itwell… Qu that comes from nature is deep and mellow; if it comes from booklearning, it is often shallow. (Yuan Hongdao: Preface to Chen Zhengfu’s Inspirations of the Mind)

仁 rén Ren

“仁”的基本含义是爱人,进而达到人与人之间、天地万物之间一体的状态。“仁”既是道德行为的基础和依据,又是一种内在的与道德行为相应的心理意识。大体来说,“仁”有如下三重含义:其一,指恻隐之心或良心;其二,指根源于父子兄弟关系基础上的亲亲之德;其三,指天地万物一体的状态和境界。儒家将其作为最高的道德准则,并将“仁”理解为有差等的爱,即爱人以孝父母敬兄长为先,进而关爱其他家族成员,最终扩大为对天下之人的博爱。

The basic meaning of the term islove for others. Its extended meaning refers to the state of harmony amongpeople, and the unity of all things under heaven. Ren (仁) constitutesthe foundation and basis for moral behavior. It is also a consciousness thatcorresponds to the norms of moral behavior. Roughly put, ren has the followingthree implications: 1) compassion or conscience; 2) virtue of respect builtupon the relationship between fathers and sons and among brothers; and 3) theunity of all things under heaven. Confucianism holds ren as the highest moralprinciple. Ren is taken as love in the order of first showing filial piety toone’s parents and elder brothers, and then extendinglove and care to other members of the family, and eventually to everyone elseunder heaven.

例句 Examples:

◎克己复礼为仁。(《论语?颜渊》)

(约束自己使言语行为都合于礼,就是仁。)

Ren means to restrain one’s self andfollow social norms. (The Analects)

◎仁者,爱之理,心之德也。(朱熹《论语集注》)

(仁,是爱的道理,心的德性。)

Ren is the principle of love andthe moral nature of human mind. (Zhu Xi: The Analects Variorum)

天 tiān Tian (Heaven)

“天”是中国古代思想中具有神圣性和终极意义的一个概念。主要有三种不同的含义:其一,指自然意义上的天空或人世之外的整个自然界,其运行呈现出一定的规律和秩序;其二,指主宰万物的具有人格意志的神灵;其三,指万事万物所遵循的普遍法则,同时也是人的心性、道德以及社会和政治秩序的依据。

Tian (天) is a sacredand fundamental concept in ancient Chinese philosophy. It has three differentmeanings. The first is the physical sky or the entirety of nature (notincluding human society), the operations of which manifest certain laws andorder. The second refers to a spiritual being, which possesses ananthropomorphic will and governs everything in the universe. The third denotesthe universal law, which is observed by all things and beings, and which isalso the basis of human nature, morality, and social and political orders.

例句 Examples:

◎天行有常,不为尧存,不为桀亡。(《荀子?天论》)

(天的运行有其固定的规律,不因为尧的贤明而存在,不因为桀的暴虐而消失。)

Heaven acts according to itsinherent laws. It does not exist due to the virtue of Yao, nor will itdisappear because of the tyranny of Jie. (Xunzi)

◎上天孚佑下民。(《尚书?汤诰》)

(上天信任并保佑百姓。)

Heaven trusts and blesses thepeople. (The Book of History)

◎天者,理也。(《二程遗书》卷十一)

(天就是宇宙的普遍法则。)

Heaven is the overarching law ofthe universe. (Writings of the Cheng Brothers)

王 wáng King

本为夏、商、周三代天子的称号,春秋以后周天子一统天下的局面遭到破坏,至战国时期列国君主皆可称王。秦汉以后,“王”一般是皇帝对自己直系男性亲属的最高封爵。在儒家特别是孔孟的政治哲学论述中,“王”一方面代表上天的旨意,具有至高无上的权力;另一方面又被赋予了极强的道德特质和政治理想。儒家认为,用仁义治理或统一天下、以道德手段使天下人都来归顺叫做“王(wànɡ)”,依靠仁义道德形成天下一统的政治局面叫做“王道”。

King was originally the titlefor the “Son of Heaven,” namely, the country’s supreme ruler in the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties. From theSpring and Autumn Period onward, the power of the Zhou court gradually weakenedand the kingdom disintegrated. By the time of the Warring States Period, anymonarch could call himself a king. Up to the Qin and Han dynasties, king becamethe highest title granted by the emperor to a male member of the imperialfamily. In the political philosophical discourse of Confucianism, especially inthe works of Confucius and Mencius, a king represents heaven’s will and therefore ought to have supreme, unchallengeable power;at the same time, he is imbued with a high moral attribute and politicalideals. According to Confucianism, to be a king is to unify or govern thecountry with benevolence and righteousness, or to win over people by morallyjustified means. Likewise, the pursuit of the kingly way means using benevolentand righteous means to unify and govern the country.

例句 Example:

◎天下归之之谓王,天下去之之谓亡。(《荀子?正论》)

(天下人归顺他,就可以称王;天下人抛弃他,就只会灭亡。)

He to whom the people swearallegiance can rule as a king (王); he perishes (亡) whenthe people desert him. (Xunzi)

物 wù Wu (Thing or Matter)

“物”一般指天地之间有形有象的一切存在,大体有三种不同含义:其一,指有形的具体存在物,包括各种自然物、人造物,也包括各种生物和人。其二,指人伦关系中发生的事务、事情,如侍奉父母、为政治国等,这个意义上的“物”相当于“事”。其三,指具体存在物或人伦事务的总和,通常称“万物”。

Wu (物) usuallydenotes an existence in the universe that has a form or an image. In general,the word has three different meanings. First, it refers to any concreteexistence, encompassing all natural and man-made objects, all organisms andhuman beings. Second, it covers interpersonal matters and activities such astaking care of one’s parents, entering politics, ormanaging state affairs. In this sense, wu means “matter.” Third, the word sums up all existing physical and social matters,generally called “everything.”

例句 Examples:

◎有天地,然后万物生焉。盈天地之间者唯万物。(《周易?序卦》)

(先有天地,然后万物化生。充满天地之间的只是万物。)

First, there is the universe.Then everything comes into being and fills up the universe. (The Book ofChanges)

◎意之所用,必有其物,物即事也。如意用于事亲,即事亲为一物。(《传习录》卷中)

(良知感应运用,必然用于“物”上,“物”就是各种事,如良知感应运用于侍奉双亲,那么侍奉双亲就是一个“物”。)

Conscience must relate to “things,” which refer to various matters. If one’sconscience is applied to parents, then taking care of one’s parents is the “matter.” (Wang Yangming: Records of Great Learning)

心 xīn Heart/Mind

“心”是人之情感、认识和价值的基础,生命的主宰。与耳、目、鼻、口等被动地感知外物不同,“心”具有思考的能力,可以辨别和整理感官所获得的材料,进行知识和道德判断。孟子认为“心”包含恻隐、辞让、羞恶、是非等四端,道德实践的核心就是保存并扩充人固有的善心。道家则认为虚静是心的根本状态,如静止之水,由此可以把握天地万物的本原。

The heart, a vital organ oflife, underpins one’s emotions, awareness, and value judgments. Different from the ears,eyes, nose, and mouth, which sense the outer world in a passive way, the heartis capable of thinking and performing intellectual and moral evaluations on thebasis of analyzing and sorting out what these organs have sensed. Menciusbelieved that the heart consists of four aspects: compassion, deference, senseof shame or detestation, and conscience. Preserving and expanding one’s good heart is the central aim in practicing moral teachings. Accordingto Daoism, a serene and uncluttered heart is the highest state for a humanbeing, much like a peaceful pool of still water. Such calmness is the way inwhich the heart can capture the essence of all things in the world.

例句 Examples:

◎耳目之官不思,而蔽于物。物交物,则引之而已矣。心之官则思,思则得之,不思则不得也。(《孟子?告子上》)

(耳目等器官不能思考,因而被外物的表象遮蔽。耳目与外物相接触,就会被其引向歧途。“心”这个器官能够思考,思考便能有所得,不思考便无所得。)

The sensory organs like ears andeyes cannot think. Therefore, they tend to be overwhelmed by the representationof external objects, and be led astray by those objects when coming intocontact with them. The heart, however, is an organ capable of thinking.Thinking yields insight, while lack of it will get one nowhere. (Mencius)

◎心者,一身之主宰。(《朱子语类》卷五)

(心是人身体的主宰。)

Heart is the dominant organ ofone’s body. (Classified Conversations of Master Zhu Xi)

性 xìng Xing (Nature)

古人所讨论的“性”的观念,主要指“人性”。“性”的概念包含两个要点:其一,是事物天生所具有的属性,非后天人为;其二,是某类事物普遍具有的属性,非某些个体所特有。据此而言,“人性”观念也有两种不同的含义:其一,指人天生所具有的普遍属性,包括身体上的各种生命特征及欲望、知觉等;其二,指人天生所具有的人之所以为人的本质属性,亦即人区别于禽兽的道德本性。历代学者对人性善恶的问题有着许多不同的看法,或性善,或性恶,或性无善恶,或性有善有不善,或有性善有性不善。

Xing (性) mainlyreferred to human nature in ancient times. The concept of xing has twoessential points. First, it refers to the inherent nature of all things, not asa result of nurture. Second, it refers to the common nature of certain kind ofthings, not the nature of individual things of that kind. Similarly, humannature, too, has two meanings. First, it refers to inherent attributes allpeople share, including physical features, desires, and consciousness. Second,it is the essential and distinct attribute that distinguishes people from birdsand beasts, in other words, human’s moral nature.Scholars throughout history held varied views over the question whether humannature was good or evil. Some believed it was good. Some thought it was evil.Some held that it was neither good nor evil. Some held that human nature couldbe both good and evil in the same person. Some thought that human nature wasgood in some people, but evil in others.

例句 Examples:

◎食、色,性也。(《孟子?告子上》)

(对饮食和美色的追求是人的本性。)

To love food and good looks isbut human nature. (Mencius)

◎性即理也。(《二程遗书》卷二十二上)

(性就是理。)

Human nature is in line with theprinciples of heaven. (Writings of the Cheng Brothers)

虚 xū Xu

“虚”指世界或者心灵的一种状态。大体有两种不同的含义:其一,指世界的本原,万物皆由虚无中来。但古人对“虚”的这一含义又有不同理解:或认为“虚”就是空虚无有;或认为“虚”指“气”的存在状态,因为“气”的存在隐微无形,故以“虚”称之,但并非完全空无。其二,指虚静的或没有成见的内心状态。

Xu refers to a state of thecosmos or a state of mind. Basically, it has two different meanings. The firstrefers to the origin of the universe, indicating that everything originatesfrom xu. Different ancient thinkers have different interpretations of thisnotion: Some take xu as being devoid of anything; others believe it is thestate of existence of qi (气). Because qi is invisible and formless, it issaid to be empty, but not a vacuum totally devoid of anything. The secondmeaning of xu refers to a state of mind that is peaceful, not preoccupied orsimply free of any preconceptions.

例句 Examples:

◎太虚无形,气之本体。(张载《正蒙?太和》)

(“虚”是无形的,是“气”的本来状态。)

Xu is formless; it is theoriginal state of qi. (Zhang Zai: Enlightenment Through Confucian Teachings)

◎唯道集虚,虚者心斋也。(《庄子?人间世》)

(只有道汇集并呈现于虚静的心灵,“虚”就是心斋。)

Dao gathers and presents itselfin an unoccupied and peaceful mind; being unoccupied means the pure state ofthe mind. (Zhuangzi)

义 yì Righteousness

“义”的基本含义是合理、恰当,引申而有两重含义:其一,指人行事的合理依据与标准;其二,指在道德意识的判断与引导下,调节言行使之符合一定的标准,以获得合理的安处。宋代学者用“理”或“天理”的概念来解释“义”,认为“义”就是“天理”所规定的合理的标准,同时要求言行符合“天理”。

The basic meaning of yi (义) is “reasonable” and “proper.” It has two extended meanings. One is the proper basis and standardfor people’s actions. The other is to adjust one’s words or deeds to meet certain standards, under the guidance ofmoral judgments. Scholars in the Song Dynasty used li (理) or “principles of heaven” to interpret yi, and considered yi to be the reasonable standarddefined by the “principles of heaven,” and hoped that people’s words and deedswould fall in line with the “principles of heaven.”

例句 Examples:

◎君子喻于义。(《论语?里仁》)

(君子知晓并遵循义。)

Junzi (a man of virtue)understands things and acts in accordance with righteousness. (The Analects)

◎义者,心之制,事之宜也。(朱熹《孟子集注》)

(义就是约束自己的内心,使事情合宜。)

Righteousness means exercisingself-restraint in order to do everything properly. (Zhu Xi: Mencius Variorum)

本末běnmò Ben–Mo(the Fundamental and the Incidental)

本义指草木的根和梢,引申而为中国哲学的重要概念。其含义可以概括为三个方面:其一,指具有不同价值和重要性的事物,根本的、主要的事物为“本”,非根本的、次要的事物为“末”;其二,世界的本体或本原为“本”,具体的事物或现象为“末”;其三,在道家的政治哲学中,无为之治下的自然状态为“本”,各种具体的道德、纲常为“末”。在“本末”对待的关系中,“本”具有根本性、主导性的作用和意义,“末”由“本”而生,依赖“本”而存在,但“本”的作用的发挥仍需以“末”为载体。二者既相互区别,又相互依赖。

The two characters literallymean the different parts of a plant, namely, its root and its foliage. Theextended meaning is an important concept in Chinese philosophical discourse.The term can be understood in three different ways. 1) ben (本) refers towhat is fundamental or essential, while mo (末) meanswhat is minor or incidental, two qualities that differ in value and importance.2) ben refers to the existence of the world in an ontological sense, while morepresents any specific thing or phenomenon. 3) in Daoist political philosophyben is a state in which rule is exercised by not disrupting the natural orderof the world, while mo refers to moral standards and fundamental principlesgoverning social behavior. In any ben-mo relationship, ben is most importantand plays a dominant role, while mo exists thanks to ben. On the other hand, itis through the vehicle of mo that ben exerts its influence. Thus the two,though different, are mutually dependent.

例句 Examples:

◎子夏之门人小子,当洒扫应对进退,则可矣,抑末也。本之则无,如之何?(《论语?子张》)

(子夏的学生,叫他们做打扫、接待、应对的工作,那是可以的,不过这只是末节罢了。而那些最根本性的学问却没有学习,这怎么行呢?)

Zixia’s students canclean, receive guests, and engage in social interaction, but these are trivialthings. They have not learned the fundamentals. How can this be sufficient?(The Analects)

◎崇本以举其末。(王弼《老子注》)

(崇尚自然无为之本以统括道德礼法之末。)

One should respect, notinterfere with, the natural order of the world, and apply this principle when establishing moral standards, socialnorms, and laws and regulations. (Wang Bi: Commentaries on Laozi)

般若bōrě Bore or Boruo / Wisdom

梵文praj?ā的音译(或译为“波若”)。意为“智慧”,指能洞见一切事物本性、认识万物真相的最高的智慧。佛教认为,“般若”是超越一切世俗认识的特殊智慧,是觉悟得道、修成佛或菩萨的所有修行方法的指南或根本。然而,这种智慧本身无形无相,不可言说,仅能依赖各种方便法门而有所领悟。

Bore or boruo is thetransliteration of the Sanskrit word praj?ā, meaning wisdom. It refers to the supreme wisdom with insight intothe nature and reality of all things. Buddhism believes that such wisdomsurpasses all secular understandings, and therefore is the guide for or essenceof the effort aimed at achieving enlightenment and attaining Buddhahood or bodhisattvahood.Bore has no form, no appearance, and cannot be expressed in words. It can onlybe achieved by undertaking a variety of accessible Buddhist practices.

例句 Example:

◎般若无所知,无所见。(僧肇《肇论》引《道行般若经》)

(般若这种智慧不是普通的知识,也超越一切具体的见闻。)

Bore is the wisdom that surpassesall common or ordinary knowledge and specific understandings. (Sengzhao:Treatises of Sengzhao)

大同dàtóng Universal Harmony

儒家理想中的天下一家、人人平等、友爱互助的太平盛世(与“小康”相对)。儒家认为它是人类社会发展的最高阶段,类似于西方的乌托邦。其主要特征是:权力和财富归社会公有;社会平等,安居乐业;人人能得到社会的关爱;货尽其用,人尽其力。清末民初,“大同”又被用来指称西方传来的社会主义、共产主义、世界主义等概念。

This term refers to the time ofpeace and prosperity envisioned by Confucian scholars when all the people underheaven are one family, equal, friendly, and helpful to each other (as opposedto xiaokang [小康] – minor or moderate prosperity). Confucianism takesuniversal harmony as the supreme stage of the development of the human society,somewhat similar to the idea of utopia in the West. Its main features are: Allpower and wealth belong to the whole of society; all people are equal and liveand work in peace and contentment; everyone is cared for by society; everythingis used to its fullest and everyone works to his maximum potential. In the lateQing Dynasty and the early Republic of China, the term referred to the conceptsof socialism, communism, or cosmopolitanism that had been introduced to Chinafrom the West.

例句 Example:

◎大道之行也,天下为公,选贤与能,讲信修睦。故人不独亲其亲,不独子其子,使老有所终,壮有所用,幼有所长,矜寡孤独废疾者,皆有所养……是谓大同。(《礼记?礼运》)

(大道实行的时代,天下为百姓所共有,品德高尚、才能突出的人被选拔出来管理社会,人与人之间讲究诚实与和睦。所以人们不仅仅爱自己的双亲,不仅仅抚养自己的子女,而是使老年人都能终其天年,壮年人都有用武之地,幼童都能得到抚育,无妻或丧妻的年老男子、无夫或丧夫的年老女子、丧父的儿童、无子女的老人以及残障者都能得到照顾和供养……这就叫做大同社会。)

When great Dao prevails, thewhole world is owned by all the people. Those who are virtuous and competentare selected as administrators. People treat each other with sincerity and livein harmony. People not only love their parents, bring up their children, butalso take care of the aged. The middle-aged are able to put their talents andabilities to best use, children are well nurtured, and old widows and widowers,unmarried old people, orphans, childless old people, and the disabled are allprovided for… This is universal harmony. (The Book of Rites)

法治fǎzhì Rule by Law

以法治国。是站在君主的角度,主张君主通过制定并严格执行法令、规章来治理民众和国家(与“人治”相对),是先秦时期法家的重要政治思想。法家的“法治”思想有赏罚分明的一面,也有过于严苛、刚硬的弊端。自汉朝以迄清朝,“法治”和“人治”,各王朝多兼而用之。近代以降,“法治”因西学东渐而被赋予新的含义。

Rule by law, as opposed to ruleby man, calls for ruling a state and its people by the ruler through enactingand strictly enforcing laws and regulations. It is an important politicalthought of the Legalist scholars in the pre-Qin period. Rule by law meted outwell-defined rewards and punishments, but tended to be excessively severe andrigid in enforcement. From the Han Dynasty all the way to the Qing Dynasty,rule by law and rule by man were exercised by various dynasties, mostly incombination. With the spread of Western thoughts to China in more recent times,rule by law acquired new meanings.

例句 Examples:

◎是故先王之治国也,不淫意于法之外,不为惠于法之内也。(《管子?明法》)

(所以先王治国,不在法度外恣意妄为,也不在法度内私行恩惠。)

When our forefathers ruled thestate, they did not act unscrupulously in disregard of law, nor did they bestowpersonal favors within the framework of law. (Guanzi)

◎故法治者,治之极轨也,而通五洲万国数千年间。其最初发明此法治主义,以成一家言者谁乎?则我国之管子也!(梁启超《管子评传》)

(所以法治就是治理国家的最高模式,它通行于五大洲万国的数千年历史之中。那么最初发明法治主义,成为一家之言的人是谁呢?是我国的管子啊!)

Therefore, rule by law is thesupreme way to rule a country. It has been exercised by numerous countries inthe world for several thousand years. Who conceived this idea and developed itinto a theory of governance? It was none other than our fellow countrymanGuanzi! (Liang Qichao: A Critical Biography of Guanzi)

封建fēngjiàn Feudal System

即封邦建国。古代帝王将爵位、土地和人口分封给亲戚或功臣,让他们在封地内建国。各封国的规模小于王室的直辖领地,军、政自成体系,封国之间相互制衡,拱卫王室。作为一种政治制度,封建制相传始于黄帝时期,至西周时期达于完备。秦至清,中央集权制或专制帝制居于主导地位,而封建制则成为一种辅助性制度。

Under this system, ancientmonarchs granted titles of nobility, land, and people to their relatives andofficials of merit, allowing them to establish dukedoms. Each territory wassmaller than that under the direct control of the monarch, and had its own militaryand administrative systems. All dukedoms checked each other while protectingthe monarch together. As a political scheme, the feudal system is believed tohave started in the era of the legendary Yellow Emperor, and became establishedin the Western Zhou Dynasty. In more than 2000 years from the Qin Dynasty tothe Qing Dynasty, centralized government or imperial autocracy was dominant,rendering the feudal system supplementary.

例句 Example:

◎彼封建者,更古圣王尧、舜、禹、汤、文、武而莫能去之。(柳宗元《封建论》)

(封建制经历了上古的圣贤之王尧、舜、禹、商汤、周文王、周武王也没有能废除它。)

Feudal system survived the erasof all ancient sages, namely Yao, Shun, Yu the Great, Tang of Shang, King Wenof Zhou, and King Wu of Zhou. (Liu Zongyuan: On Feudal System)

格调gédiào Form and Melody

指诗歌的体制声调,包括思想旨趣和声律形式两方面,涉及诗歌批评的品味与境界。“格”指诗歌的体制合乎规范;“调”指诗歌的声调韵律。唐宋时期的一些诗论家倡导格调,意在确立诗歌的雅正标准。明清以后的格调说,多强调作品应符合儒家正统思想,这影响了诗人的情感表达与艺术创作。“格调”后来也用到其他文艺领域。

The term refers to the form andmetrical patterns, as well as content, of poetry. It relates to artistic taste and appeal in poetry criticism. Ge (格) refers to the need to satisfyestablished metrical rules, while diao (调) refers tothe need to follow tone and rhyme schemes in poetry. Some poetry critics of theTang and Song dynasties stressed the importance of form and melody in order toestablish a set of elegant and authoritative standards for poetry. Theory onform and melody in the Ming and Qing dynasties often emphasized the importancefor poets to abide by Confucian orthodoxy, thus constraining their expressionof feelings and artistic creations. The term was later also used in discussionsof other forms of art.

例句 Examples:

◎高古者格,宛亮者调。(李梦阳《驳何氏论文书》)

(高雅古朴就是“格”,婉曲清亮就是“调”。)

To be elegant and unaffected isto satisfy the requirements of form; to be tuneful and resonant is to followthe rules of melody. (Li Mengyang: Arguments Against He Jingming’s Views)

◎白石词以清虚为体,而时有阴冷处,格调最高。(陈廷焯《白雨斋词话》卷二)

(姜夔的词以清新虚空为主要特色,虽然有凄清冷寂的地方,但格调最高。)

Jiang Kui’s poems arecharacterized by ethereal purity. Though tinged with loneliness and sadness attimes, they are of high standard and taste. (Chen Tingzhuo: Remarks on Lyricsfrom White Rain Studio)

华夏huáxià Huaxia

古代居住于中原地区的汉民族先民的自称。最早称“华”“诸华”或“夏”“诸夏”。“华夏”实际表达的是以汉民族为主体的中原先民对其共同的生活、语言、文化特征的一种认同和传承。秦建立以华夏为主体的统一的多民族国家以后,华夏才成为比较稳定的族群。自汉代以后,华夏又有了“汉”这一名称与之并用。后来华夏进一步引申为指中国或汉族。

The forefathers of the Hanpeople living in the Central Plains referred to themselves by this term.Earlier on they called themselves Hua (华), Zhuhua (诸华),Xia (夏) or Zhuxia (诸夏). Theterm Huaxia (华夏) embodies the common identity of theway of life, language, and culture of the people living in the Central Plains,mainly the Han people, and the inheritance of such identity. The Huaxia peopleevolved into a fairly stable ethnic group in the Qin Dynasty, which establisheda unified country of many ethnic groups with Huaxia being the principal group.In the Han Dynasty, the term Han became an alternative name of Huaxia. Later,the term Huaxia was extended to refer to China or the Han people.

例句 Example:

◎夏,大也。中国有礼义之大,故称夏;有服章之美,谓之华。华夏一也。(《左传?定公十年》孔颖达正义)

(夏的含义是“大”。华夏族的礼仪宏富伟大,所以称为“夏”;华夏族的衣服华美出众,所以称为“华”。“华”与“夏”是同一个意思。)

The Chinese character夏 (xia) meansbig and great. Since the ancient Huaxia people practiced grand and elaboraterituals, they called themselves Xia (great). Their dresses were resplendent, sothey were referred to as Hua (splendid). Therefore, both Hua and Xia refer tothe Han people. (Kong Yingda: Correct Meaning of Zuo’sCommentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals)

教化jiàohuà Shaping the Mind ThroughEducation

指教育和感化。是中国古代重要的政治理念和治国方法。当政者一般通过行政命令、道德教育、环境影响、通俗读物传播、科举考试等诸种有形和无形的手段的综合运用,将主流价值观潜移默化地向民众普及,使之深入民众的日常活动之中,从而实现政治与风俗的合二为一。

Shaping the mind througheducation was a key concept of the political philosophy and an essential way ofgovernance in ancient China. Rulers usually used a combination of means, bothvisible and invisible, to subtly spread their values among people so that thesevalues would be observed in people’s daily life, leading to integrationof governance and social mores. These means include issuing administrativedecrees, conducting moral education, creating a favorable environment,disseminating popular literature that promoted ethical values, and selectingofficials through imperial examinations.

例句 Example:

◎故礼之教化也微,其止邪也于未形。(《礼记?经解》)

(所以礼对民众的教育和感化作用是隐微的,它能够将不好的东西消弭于未成形之时。)

Educating and influencing thepeople through li (礼) has the invisible impact of getting rid of immoral thoughts in thebud. (The Book of Rites)

九州jiǔzhōu Nine Zhou (Regions)

中国的别称。《尚书?禹贡》中将中国划分为九州,分别是冀州、兖州、青州、徐州、扬州、荆州、豫州、梁州、雍州。同时代或稍后的典籍《周礼》《尔雅》《吕氏春秋》等有关“九州”的说法大同小异。“九州”作为行政区划在历史上并未真正实行过,但它反映了春秋末期以来中华先民栖息生活的大致上的地理范围。

This term is an alternativedesignation for China. According to The Book of History, the country consistedof nine zhou (州), namely Jizhou, Yanzhou, Qingzhou, Xuzhou, Yangzhou, Jingzhou,Yuzhou, Liangzhou, and Yongzhou. There are similar references to the nine zhouin classic works of the same or later period, such as The Rituals of Zhou, ErYa, and Master Lü’s Spring and Autumn Annals. The ninezhou were never adopted as actual administrative divisions of the country, butthey did show the general geographical area inhabited by the Chinese peoplesince the late Spring and Autumn Period.

例句 Examples:

◎九州生气恃风雷,万马齐喑究可哀。我劝天公重抖擞,不拘一格降人才。(龚自珍《己亥杂诗》)

(九州生机勃勃靠的是风雷激荡,万马齐喑的局面实在令人悲哀。我奉劝上苍定要重振精神,打破一切清规戒律降生更多人才。)

The vitality of China depends onwind and thunder, unfortunately not a single horse’s neighing isheard. I urge the Lord of Heaven to once again lift his spirits and, breakingall bonds and fetters, send talent of all kinds to the human world. (GongZizhen: Miscellaneous Poems Written in the Year of 1839)

◎吾恐中国之祸,不在四海之外,而在九州之内矣。(张之洞《劝学篇?序》)

(我恐怕中国的祸患,不在中国之外,而在中国之内。)

As I see it, the cause of China’s disasterslies not overseas but within the country. (Zhang Zhidong: Preface toEncouragement to Learning)

良史liángshǐ Good Historian/Good History

好的史家或史书,即能根据史实,客观记载书写,无所隐讳,信而有征。无论是史家,还是史书,判断其好坏的标准都在于记载历史是否客观真实。这是科学史学的首要条件。

This refers to historians orhistory books that record historical facts in an objective and truthful waybased on evidences without covering up anything. Objectivity is the ultimatecriterion for judging historians or history books in historiography.

例句 Examples:

◎然自刘向、扬雄博极群书,皆称迁有良史之材……其文直,其事核,不虚美,不隐恶。(《汉书?司马迁传赞》)

(可是自从刘向、扬雄博览群书之后,都称赞司马迁具备优秀史家的资质……他行文正直合理,叙事翔实正确,不虚假赞美,不掩盖恶行。)

However, after reading a hugenumber of books, Liu Xiang and Yang Xiong came to view Sima Qian as a greathistorian… His accounts are straightforward and reasonable, accurate andsubstantive, and free from false praise; they do not cover up evil deeds. (TheHan History)

◎凡善恶必书,谓之良史。(苏鹗《苏氏演义》卷上)

(无论善恶,都照直记录书写,这就叫好史书。)

A good history is one which recordsboth good and evil that have happened. (Su E: Textual Studies by Su E)

良知liángzhī Liangzhi (Conscience)

人天生所具有的道德本性与道德上的认识和实践能力。“良知”一词最初由孟子提出,认为人不加思虑便能知道的便是“良知”。“良知”的具体内容包括亲爱其父母、尊敬其兄长。而亲爱父母是仁,尊敬兄长是义。“良知”说是孟子性善论的重要内容。明代的王守仁提出“致良知”,进一步发展了孟子的“良知”说。他认为,“良知”就是天理,一切事物及其规律都包含在“良知”之中。将“良知”扩充到底,即能达到对一切道德真理的认识和实践。

Humans are born with innateconscience and the ability to know and act upon it. The term liangzhi (良知) was firstused by Mencius, who believed that what man knew by instinct was liangzhi(knowledge of goodness). The term includes ren (仁),i.e. love for one’s parents and yi (义), i.e. respect for one’s elder brothers.The concept is an important component of Mencius’belief in the innate goodness of human nature. The Ming-dynasty philosopherWang Shouren raised the idea of “attaining liangzhi.” He extended the Mencius’ liangzhi to meanthe principles of heaven, maintaining that all things under heaven and theirlaws were covered by liangzhi. With liangzhi being extended to its fullest(through self-cultivation and moral practice), it is possible to know and putin practice all moral truths.

例句 Examples:

◎所不虑而知者,良知也。(《孟子?尽心上》)

(人所不加思虑便能知晓的,就是良知。)

What is known without thinkingis the innate knowledge of goodness. (Mencius)

◎天理即是良知。(《传习录》卷下)

(天理就是良知。)

Principles of heaven andconscience are the same in essence. (Records of Great Learning)

情景qíngjǐng Sentiment and Scenery

指文学作品中摹写景物与抒发情感的相互依存和有机融合。“情”指作者内心的情感,“景”为外界景物。情景理论强调二者的交融,情无景不立,景无情不美。是宋代以后出现的文学术语,相对于早期的情物观念,情景理论更加重视景物摹写与情感抒发、创作与鉴赏过程的互相依赖与融为一体。

This term refers to the mutualdependence and integration of an author’s description of scenery and objects,and his expression of feelings in his literary creation. Qing (情) is an author’s inner feelings, and jing (景) refers to external scenery or an object. The theory of sentimentand scenery stresses integration of the two, maintaining that sentiment canhardly be aroused without scenery and that scenery or an object cannot beappreciated without sentiment. This term appeared in the Song Dynasty. Comparedwith earlier notions about sentiment and scenery, this one is more emphaticabout fusing the depiction of scenery with the expression of feelings, and theprocess of creation with that of appreciation.

例句 Examples:

◎景无情不发,情无景不生。(范晞文《对床夜语》卷二)

(景物若没有情感的注入就不会出现在诗歌中,情感若没有景物的衬托就无从生发。)

Scenery has no place in poetryunless there are feelings for it; feelings cannot be stirred without theinspiration of scenery. (Fan Xiwen: Midnight Dialogues Across Two Beds)

◎情景名为二,而实不可离。神于诗者,妙合无垠。巧者则有情中景、景中情。(王夫之《姜斋诗话》卷下)

(情与景虽然名称上为二,但实际上不可分离。善于作诗的人,二者融合巧妙,看不出界限。构思精巧的则会有情中景、景中情。)

Sentiment and scenery seem to betwo distinct things, but in fact they cannot be separated. A good poet knowshow to integrate them seamlessly. An ingenious combination of sentiment andscenery means scenery embedded in sentiment and vice versa. (Wang Fuzhi:Desultory Remarks on Poetry from Ginger Studio)

人治rénzhì Rule by Man

通过规范人伦关系、道德观念和其他价值系统来治理国家和民众(与“法治”相对),是中国古代儒家政治哲学中最重要的治国理念。这种理念强调人在政治中的根本地位和作用,希望君主具备圣贤的人格,选择有道德和有才干的人治理国家,教育和感化臣民。在中国历史上,这种治国理念通常伴随着一个理想的期待,即实现君、臣、民三者之间的和谐相处,也就是“仁政”。

Rule by man, as opposed to ruleby law, is the most important ruling concept in the Confucian politicalphilosophy in ancient China. It calls for ruling a state and its people throughorderly human relations, moral standards, and other value systems. Rule by manemphasizes the fundamental role and importance of people in conductingpolitical affairs. It emphasizes that a ruler should have a lofty and noblecharacter, select competent officials with integrity to run the state, andeducate and influence the general public. In Chinese history, this concept ofgovernance was designed to achieve a harmonious relationship between thesovereign, his officials, and his subjects, which meant “benevolentgovernance.”

例句 Example:

◎人治所以正人。(《礼记?大传》郑玄注)

(人治就是用来规范人伦关系的。)

Rule by man aims to regulatehuman relations. (Zheng Xuan: Annotations on The Book of Rites)

日新rìxīn Constant Renewal

天天更新。努力使自身不断更新,使民众、社会、国家不断更新,持续进步、完善,始终呈现新的气象。它是贯穿在“修齐治平”各层面的一种自强不息、不断革新进取的精神。?

This term refers to an ongoingprocess of self-renewal, which also brings new life to the people, society, andthe nation. This process features continuous progress and improvement. Itrepresents a tenacious and innovative spirit that permeates all levels of “self-cultivation,family regulation, state governance, bringing peace to all under heaven.”

例句 Example:

◎汤之盘铭曰:“苟日新,日日新,又日新。”《康诰》曰:“作新民。”《诗》曰:“周虽旧邦,其命维新。”是故君子无所不用其极。(《礼记?大学》)?

(商朝的开国君主汤的浴盆上加铸的铭文说:“如果能够一天更新自己,就应保持天天更新,更新了还要再更新。”《尚书?康诰》上说:“激励民众弃旧图新,去恶向善。”《诗经》上说:“周虽然是古老的国家,却禀受了新的天命。”所以君子无时无处不尽心尽力革新自己。)?

“If we can improve ourselves in oneday, we should do so every day, and keep building on improvement,” reads the inscription on the bathtub of Tang, founder of the ShangDynasty. “People should be encouraged to discard theold and embrace the new, give up evil ideas, and live up to high moralstandards,” says The Book of History. “Though it was an ancient state, Zhou saw its future lying incontinuously renewing itself,” comments The Book ofSongs. Therefore, junzi (men of virtue) should strive to excel themselves inall aspects and at all times. (The Book of Rites)

镕裁róngcái Refining and Deleting

对文学作品的基本内容与词句进行提炼与剪裁,使之达到更高的水准与境界。属于文学写作的基本范畴。最早由《文心雕龙》提出。主要指作者在写作过程中,根据所要表达的内容以及文体特点,对于创作构思中的众多素材加以提炼,同时对文辞去粗存精、删繁就简,以求得最佳表现效果。这一术语既强调文学写作的精益求精,同时也彰显了文学创作是内容与形式不断完善的过程。明清时期戏剧创作理论也颇受其影响。?

This term refers to improving aliterary work by refining its basic content and making the presentationconcise. Refining and deleting is a basic process in literary writing. The termwas first mentioned in The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons. It means thatin producing a literary work, the author should select the right elements fromall the material he has, delete unnecessary parts and keep the essence, andwrite in a concise way to best present what he has in mind and to best suit thestyles of writing. It shows that literary creation is a process of constantlystriving for perfection in terms of both content and form. This idea had agreat impact on the theory of theatrical writing in the Ming and Qingdynasties.

例句 Example:

◎规范本体谓之镕,剪截浮词谓之裁。裁则芜秽不生,镕则纲领昭畅。(刘勰《文心雕龙?镕裁》)

(“镕”是规范文章的基本内容和结构,“裁”是删去多余的词句。经过剪裁,文章就没有多余杂乱的词句;经过提炼,文章就会纲目清楚、层次分明。)?

Refining means to shape thebasic content and structure of a literary work, while deleting means to cut offredundant words or sentences. Once done, the essay will be well structured,with a clear-cut theme. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

神思shénsī Imaginative Contemplation

文艺创作过程中的一种精神状态,指的是作者在饱满的情感驱动下,超越时间与空间的限制,进入到自由想象或特殊的灵感状态,最后通过特定的文学艺术形象和语言而传达出来,创作出自然而美好的文艺作品。这一术语,在魏晋南北朝的文艺理论中得到广泛运用,南朝刘勰《文心雕龙》对此有专门论述。“神思”强调它是文艺创作中一种独特的心理活动,不同于其他认识活动。

The term refers to a state ofmind in the process of literary and artistic creation. It suggests that theauthor, fully inspired by emotions, transcends the constraint of time andspace, and enters into a state of free imagination or a special mood forliterary and artistic creation, before producing a natural and beautiful workof literature or art, either in language or in imagery. This term was popularlyused in literary and artistic theories of the Wei, Jin, and Southern andNorthern dynasties. Liu Xie of the Southern Dynasties devoted one chapterespecially to this term in The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons. Withemphasis on the unique mental activity in literary and artistic creation,imaginative contemplation is different from other cognitive activities.

例句 Examples:

◎古人云:“形在江海之上,心存魏阙之下。”神思之谓也。文之思也,其神远矣。(刘勰《文心雕龙?神思》)

(古人说:“身在民间,心却想着朝廷。”这说的就是神思。文章写作时的想象和思绪,其神奇是可以超越时空的呀!)

An ancient saying goes, “Though helives among the common folks, deep in his heart he concerns himself withaffairs of the imperial court.” This is calledimaginative contemplation. When one writes, his imaginations and thoughts maytranscend time and space. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)

◎属文之道,事出神思,感召无象,变化不穷。(萧子显《南齐书?文学传论》)

(写文章的规律,来自于神思,人对万物的感触没有形迹,变化无穷。)

The guiding principles forliterary creation come from imaginative contemplation. Man’s feelings andthoughts about the external world are formless and highly changeable. (XiaoZixian: The Book of Southern Qi)

太极tàijí Taiji (The Supreme Ultimate)

“太极”有三种不同的含义:其一,指世界的本原。但古人对“太极”的世界本原之义又有不同理解:或以“太极”为混沌未分的“气”或“元气”;或以之为世界的普遍法则,即“道”或“理”;或以之为“无”。其二,占筮术语。指奇(—)偶(–)两画尚未推演确定或蓍草混一未分的状态,是卦象的根源。其三,指空间的最高极限。

Taiji (the supreme ultimate) hasthree different meanings. First, it refers to the origin of the world. Theancient Chinese saw it either as qi (vital force) or yuanqi (primordial vitalforce) that permeates the chaotic world, or as a universal principle, i.e. Daoor li (理), or as wu (无). Second, it is used as aterm of divination, referring to the initial state before divinatory numbers,the odd number one (written as –) and the even numbertwo (written as –?–), are applied or before theyarrow stems are divided. Divination is conducted on the basis of taiji. Third,it stands for the highest point or boundary of space.

例句 Examples:

◎易始于太极,太极分而为二,故生天地。(《易纬?乾凿度》)

(易起始于太极,太极一分为二,因此生成了天地。)

Changes evolve from taiji, whichgives rise to two primal forces of yin and yang. They in turn give birth toheaven and earth. (An Alternative Explanation of The Book of Changes)

◎总天地万物之理,便是太极。(《朱子语类》卷九十四)

(总合天地万物的理,便是太极。)

Taiji is the overriding law ofall things, as well as heaven and earth. (Classified Conversations of MasterZhu Xi)

体性tǐxìng Style and Temperament

作品风格与作者个性的统一与结合。是关于文学风格的重要术语。“体”指文章风格,“性”指作者个性因素。源出于刘勰《文心雕龙?体性》,该文分析了作者个性特点与文章风格有着内在的关联,文如其人。这启发了后人从作者个性着眼去分析文学作品不同的风格类型,奠定了中国古代文学风格论的基本思想。

This is an important term aboutliterary style that stresses the unity and integration of the styles ofwritings with the temperaments of their authors. The term originated from LiuXie’s The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons. One chapter of thebook discusses how the styles of writings are related to the temperaments ofthe writers, and argues that the writings truly reflect the temperaments oftheir authors. This has encouraged later generations to analyze differentstyles of literary works based on the authors’temperaments and became a basic line of thought on ancient Chinese literarystyle.

例句 Example:

◎夫情动而言形,理发而文见。盖沿隐以至显,因内而符外者也。然才有庸俊,气有刚柔,学有浅深,习有雅郑;并情性所铄,陶染所凝,是以笔区云谲,文苑波诡者矣。(刘勰《文心雕龙?体性》)

(情感激发而形成语言,道理表达便体现为文章。也就是将隐藏在内心的情和理逐渐彰显、由内至外的过程。不过人的才华有平凡和杰出之分,气禀有阳刚与阴柔之别,学识有浅深之异,习性有雅正和鄙俗之差。这些都是由人的先天情性所造就,并受后天的熏陶积聚而成,所以他们的创作奇谲如风云变幻,文章诡秘似海涛翻转。)

When emotions stir, they takethe form of language. When ideas emerge, they are expressed in writings. Thus theobscure becomes manifest and the internal feelings pour into the open. However,talent may be mediocre or outstanding, temperament masculine or feminine,learning deep or shallow, upbringing refined or vulgar. All this results fromdifferences in nature and nurture. Hence the unusual cloud-like variations inthe realm of writing and the mysterious wave-like undulations in the garden ofliterature. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

体用tǐyòng Ti and Yong (Substance andUtility)

“体用”有三种不同含义:其一,形体、实体为“体”,形体、实体的功能、作用为“用”。其二,事物的本体为“体”,本体的显现、运用为“用”。其三,行事、行为的根本原则为“体”,根本原则的具体施用为“用”。在“体用”对待的关系中,“体”是基础,“用”是依赖于“体”的。

Ti and yong (substance andutility) can be understood in three different ways: 1) a physical thing and itsfunctions or roles; 2) the ontological existence of a thing and its expressionand application; and 3) the fundamental code of conduct, and its observance. Inany ti–yong relationship, ti (体) provides the basis on whichyong (用) depends.

例句 Examples:

◎天者定体之名,乾者体用之称。(《周易?乾》孔颖达正义)

(“天”是确定实体的名称,“乾”是表现实体之功用的名称。)

Tian means heaven in thephysical sense, while qian (乾) means its functions and significance. (KongYingda: Correct Meaning of The Book of Changes)

◎至微者理也,至著者象也。体用一源,显微无间。(程颐《程氏易传》)

(最隐微的是理,最显著的是象。作为本体的理和作为现象的象出自同一来源,显著与隐微之间没有差别。)

What is most subtle is li (理), while whatis most conspicuous is xiang (象). Li as the ontologicalexistence and xiang as its manifestation are of the same origin; there is nodifference between them. (Cheng Yi: Cheng Yi’sCommentary on The Book of Changes)

天下tiānxià Tianxia (All Under Heaven)

古多指天子统治范围的全部土地及统治权。古人认为,大夫的统治范围是“家”,诸侯的统治范围是“国”,天子的统治范围是“天下”。“天下”字面义是“普天之下”,实质指天子统治或名义之下的“家国”统合体所覆盖的全部疆域,并包括天下所有的人及国家的统治权。后演变指全世界。

This term referred mainly to allthe land under the name of the Son of Heaven and the right to rule on suchland. Ancient Chinese held that the rule of senior officials was over theirenfeoffed land, and that of dukes and princes was over feudal states. The ruleof the Son of Heaven was over all the land. Literally, tianxia (天下) means “all under heaven.” It actually refers to allthe territory embracing the enfeoffed land and feudal states under the rule orin the name of the Son of Heaven, as well as all the subjects and the right torule. The term has later evolved to refer to the whole world.

例句 Example:

◎溥天之下,莫非王土;率土之滨,莫非王臣。(《诗经?小雅?北山》)

(普天之下,无一不是天子的土地;四海之内,无一不是天子的臣民。)

All land under heaven fallswithin the domain of the Son of Heaven; all those on this land are hissubjects. (The Book of Songs)

王道wángdào Kingly Way (Benevolent Governance)

儒家提倡的以仁义治理天下、以德服人的政治主张(与“霸道”相对)。上古贤明帝王多以仁德治国,至战国时代孟子将其提升为政治理念,提出国君应当以仁义治国,在处理国与国之间的关系时要以德服人,这样才能得到民众拥护,统一天下。它是中华民族崇尚“文明”、反对武力和暴政的具体体现。

Confucianism advocates thepolitical principle of governing the country through benevolence and winningpeople’s support through virtue as opposed to badao (霸道) – the despotic way. Enlightened kings and emperors ofancient times governed the country primarily through benevolence and virtue. Inthe Warring States Period, Mencius advocated this idea as a political concept:Only by governing the state with benevolence and righteousness, and by handlingstate-to-state relations on the basis of virtue, can a ruler win popularsupport and subsequently unify the country. The kingly way or benevolentgovernance epitomizes the Chinese people’s respect for “civilization” and their opposition to theuse of force and tyranny.

例句 Example:

◎无偏无党,王道荡荡。(《尚书?洪范》)

(公正而不偏向任何一方,圣王之道宽广无边。)

By upholding justice without anypartiality or bias, the kingly way is inclusive and boundless. (The Book ofHistory)

文明wénmíng Wenming (Civilization)

指社会文治教化彰明昌盛的状态。“文”指“人文”,指礼乐教化以及与此相关的有差等又有调和的社会秩序;“明”即光明、昌明、通达之义。中华民族崇文而不尚武,自古便将文治教化的彰明昌盛作为自己的最高理想和追求,并以此作为评判异国他域政治是否清明的最重要标准。

This term refers to a thriving,prosperous, and perceptibly refined society in which people behave in acultured fashion. Wen (文) refers to the arts and humanities, including social norms, musiceducation, moral cultivation, and a social order that is hierarchical yetharmonious. Ming (明) means bright, prosperous, andhighly civilized. The Chinese nation has always preferred wen to wu (武 force). This is the loftiest ideal pursued by the Chinese nationsince ancient times. It was also the criterion by which to judge whether thegovernance of a nation was well conducted.

例句 Example:

◎文明之世,销锋铸镝。(焦赣《易林?节之颐》)

(文明时代,销毁兵器,停止战争。)

In a civilized society weaponsare destroyed and war ceases. (Jiao Gong: Annotations on The Book of Changes)

文气wénqì Wenqi

作品中所表现出的作者的精神气质与个性特点。是作家的内在精神气质与作品外在的行文气势相融合的产物。“气”原指构成天地万物始初的基本元素,用在文论中,既指作家的精神气质,也指这种精神气质在作品中的具体表现。人禀天地之气而形成不同的个性气质,表现在文学创作中,便形成不同的文气,呈现出独特风格特点及气势强弱、节奏顿挫等。

Wenqi is the personality an author demonstrates inhis works, and is a fusion of his innate temperament and the vitality seen inhis works. Originally, qi (气) referred to the basic element in the initialbirth and formation of all things, as well as heaven and earth. In literarycriticism, it refers to an author’s distinctiveindividuality and its manifestation in his writings. Humans are believed todevelop different characters and traits endowed by the qi of heaven and earth.Reflected in literary creation, such different characters and traits naturallyfind expression in distinctive styles and varying degrees of vigor as well asrhythm and cadence.

例句 Examples:

◎文以气为主,气之清浊有体,不可力强而致。(曹丕《典论?论文》)

(文章由作家的“气”为主导,气有清气、浊气两种形态[决定人的气质优劣与材质高下],不是强行可以获得的。)

Literary writing is governed byqi. Either clear or murky, qi determines the temperament of a writer, refinedor vulgar, and his talent, high or low. Qi cannot be acquired. (Cao Pi: OnLiterary Classics)

◎气盛则言之短长与声之高下者皆宜。(韩愈《答李翊书》)

(作者的内心气势很强,那么句子长短搭配和音调的抑扬顿挫自然都会恰当。)

If a writer has a strong innerflow of qi, the length of his sentences will be well-balanced, and his choiceof tone and cadence will just be right. (Han Yu: A Letter of Response to Li Yi)

无为wúwéi Non-action

“为”的一种状态。道家以“有为”与“无为”相对。所谓“有为”,一般是指统治者把自己的意志强加给他人或世界,不尊重或不顺应万物的本性。“无为”的意义与之相反,包含三个要点:其一,权力通过自我节制的方式遏制自己的干涉欲望;其二,顺应万物或百姓的本性;其三,发挥万物或者百姓的自主性。“无为”并不是不作为,而是更智慧的作为方式,通过无为来达到无不为的结果。

Wuwei (non-action) refers to astate of action. Daoism contrasts “action” to “non-action.” “Action” generally means that the rulers impose their will on others or theworld without showing any respect for or following the intrinsic nature ofthings. “Non-action” is theopposite of “action,” and hasthree main points: 1) through self-control containing the desire to interfere;2) following the nature of all things and the people; and 3) bringing into playthe initiative of all things and people. “Non-action” does not mean not doing anything, but is a wiser way of doingthings. Non-action leads to the result of getting everything done.

例句 Examples:

◎圣人处无为之事,行不言之教。(《老子?二章》)

(圣人以无为的方式处理世事,以不言的方式教导百姓。)

Sages deal with things throughnon-action and teach ordinary people through non-speech. (Laozi)

◎道常无为而无不为。(《老子?三十七章》)

(道总是对万物不加干涉而成就万物。)

Dao always makes all thingspossible through non-interference with them. (Laozi)

五行wǔxíng Wuxing

“五行”有三种不同的含义:其一,指五种最基本的事物或构成万物的五种元素。《尚书?洪范》最早明确了“五行”的内容,即金、木、水、火、土。五种事物或元素有其各自的属性,彼此间存在相生相克的关系。其二, 五行进一步被抽象为理解万物和世界的基本框架,万物都可以纳入到五行的范畴之中,并因此被赋予不同的性质。其三,指五种道德行为。荀子曾指责子思、孟子“按往旧造说,谓之五行”,从郭店楚墓竹简及马王堆汉墓帛书相关文字内容来看,该“五行”指仁、义、礼、智、圣。

There are three meanings to theterm. 1) The five fundamental things or elements that make up all things. TheBook of History was the first to define the five elements: metal, wood, water,fire, and earth. Each of these has its own properties and they interact in agenerative or destructive relationship. 2) On a more abstract level, the termrefers to the basic framework to understand the world. All things can beincluded in the realm of wuxing (五行) and their properties are explainedor understood accordingly. 3) It refers to five kinds of moral behavior. Xunzionce criticized Zisi and Mencius for “creating wuxingon the basis of old theories.” Ancient bamboo slipsunearthed from a grave at Guodian dating back to the State of Chu as well asinscribed silk texts from the Mawangdui Tomb of the Western Han Dynasty, alldescribe this wuxing as benevolence, righteousness, li (礼), wisdom, and the wisdom and character of a sage.

例句 Example:

◎天有三辰,地有五行。(《左传?昭公三十二年》)

(天有日月星三辰,地有金木水火土五行。)

In heaven there are the sun,moon, and stars, while on earth there are the five elements: metal, wood, water, fire, and earth. (Zuo’s Commentaryon The Spring and Autumn Annals)

兴象xīngxiàng Xingxiang (Inspiring Imagery)

文学作品中能够生发深远意旨和审美情境的物象,是创作者主观情感与客观景象完美融合而产生的一种艺术境界。“兴”指作者偶然生发的创作冲动,“象”则是指作者在作品中所借助的外在的具体物象。“兴象”是唐代诗论家殷璠在《河岳英灵集序》中用来品评盛唐诗人作品的用语,后来演变成诗歌评论的“兴象观”,用以衡量作品境界的高下。

Inspiring imagery is an artisticachievement of profound literary significance and with great aesthetic taste,obtained through the perfect blending of an author’s feelingswith an objective situation or scenery. Xing (兴) is animpromptu inspiration of the author, and xiang (象) amaterial object he borrows from the external world in his writing. Tang-dynastypoetry critic Yin Fan first used the term “inspiringimagery” in his “Preface to A Collection of Poemsby Distinguished Poets” in commenting on the works ofpoets in the golden period of the Tang Dynasty. It later became a standard forassessing the merit of a poetic work.

例句 Examples:

◎既多兴象,复备风骨。(殷璠《河岳英灵集序》)

(诗人的作品既有许多兴象,又具备了风骨之美。)

These poets’ works featureboth inspiring imagery, as well as fenggu (class and integrity). (Yin Fan:Preface to A Collection of Poems by Distinguished Poets)

◎作诗大要不过二端:体格声调、兴象风神而已。(胡应麟《诗薮》)

(作诗大体上有两个方面:体制与声律,兴象与气韵。)

Poetry has two basic aspects:one includes form, rhythm, and rhyme; the other includes imagery and charm. (HuYinglin: An In-Depth Exploration of Poetry)

玄览xuánlǎn Xuanlan ( Peaceful Contemplation)

原指在深远虚净的心境下览知万物,是老子提出的认识“道”的一种方法。老子认为,只有摒弃一切杂念与成见,保持内心明澈如镜,才能静观万物,从而认识“道”,体会其精要。后世文艺评论家因为“玄览”所主张的心境与文艺创作及鉴赏所要求的审美心境相契合,遂用为文艺思想的重要术语,以说明文艺创作与鉴赏时应具有的超越一切欲望与功利的特殊心境。

This term was first used byLaozi as a way to understand Dao. He believed that one can not understand Daoby calmly observing everything unless one abandons all distracting thoughts andbiases, and keeps one’s mind as clear as a mirror. Later literary critics believed thatthe state of mind as required for xuanlan has similarities with the state ofmind required for literary writing and appreciation, thus they made it animportant term to mean one’s state of mind must transcend all desires andpersonal gains in literary writing and appreciation.

例句 Examples:

◎涤除玄览,能无疵乎?(《老子?十章》)

(涤除一切杂念,在深远虚静的心境下观照一切,就没有瑕疵了吗?)

Is it for sure that there willbe no flaws when one cleanses away all distracting thoughts and watches theworld with a clear, peaceful mind? (Laozi)

◎伫中区以玄览,颐情志于典坟。(陆机《文赋》)

(久立于天地间以深远虚静的心境观照一切,在典籍的阅读中颐养性情、培养志向。)

Standing between heaven andearth and watching the world with a clear, peaceful mind, the writer enrichesand improves himself through reading great works of the past. (Lu Ji: The Artof Writing)

雅俗yǎsú Highbrow and Lowbrow

指文艺作品品味的雅正与通俗、高尚与低俗。是文艺批评中评论作品品味高下的一对范畴。“雅”指作品的品味高雅正统,符合主流的意识形态;“俗”多指流行于大众与民间的世俗审美标准。从文艺创作上说,高雅文艺优美精良,但人工雕琢的痕迹较重;而通俗文艺源自民间,自然清新,质朴粗放。唐以后,不少文人从通俗文艺中汲取养分,通俗文艺逐渐增多,丰富了社会文艺生活,推动了文艺形态的丰富和发展。

Highbrow and lowbrow, adichotomy in literary criticism, refer to two kinds of literary and artisticworks, namely, the refined versus the popular, and the lofty versus the vulgar.Highbrow describes works that elegantand reflect what conforms with mainstream ideology, whereas lowbrow-art formstend to meet popular aesthetic standard. From the perspective of art creation,highbrow art may be exquisite, but often appears affected, whereas lowbrow art,which has a folk origin, is natural, refreshing, unaffected, and unconstrained.From the Tang Dynasty onward, it became a trend for men of letters to borrowthe best from popular art, thus further spurring the growth of lowbrow art,enriching cultural life and leading to more diversified artistic expressions.

例句 Examples:

◎子曰:“恶紫之夺朱也,恶郑声之乱雅乐也,恶利口之覆邦家者。”(《论语?阳货》)

(孔子说:“我厌恶用紫色取代红色,厌恶用郑国的音乐扰乱雅正的音乐,憎恶伶牙俐齿而使国家倾覆的人。”)

Confucius said, “I detestreplacing red with purple and interfering refined classical music with themusic of the State of Zheng. I loathe those who overthrow the state with their glibtongues.” (The Analects)

◎是以绘事图色,文辞尽情,色糅而犬马殊形,情交而雅俗异势。(刘勰《文心雕龙?定势》)

养气yǎngqì Cultivating Qi

涵养道德精神、调养身心健康以达到良好的文艺创作心态,从而创作出优秀的文艺作品。这一术语具有多重蕴涵:其一,先秦孟子强调君子应善于培养道德精神的“浩然之气”。其二,东汉王充在《论衡》中有《养气篇》,专门从养生角度提倡“养气”。其三,南朝刘勰《文心雕龙?养气》,汲取上述思想,主张在从事文艺创作的初始阶段,要保持良好的身体状态和从容自由的心态,不应过度消耗精神。后来“养气”成为文艺心理学的重要术语。

This term suggests cultivatingone’s moral spirit and improving one’s physicaland mental well-being to achieve the best state of mind during literarycreation in order to write excellent works. “Cultivatingqi (气)” has three implications:1) in the pre-Qin period Mencius emphasized that the virtuous and the capableshould foster a “righteous qi”conducive to moral cultivation; 2) A Comparative Study of Different Schools ofLearning by Wang Chong of the Eastern Han Dynasty has a chapter entitled “Treatise on Cultivating Qi,” whichemphasizes qi cultivation primarily in regards to maintaining good health; 3)Liu Xie of the Southern Dynasties, in The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons, drew upon the foregoing ideas and suggested maintaining good physicalcondition and a free, composed mental state in the initial phase of literarycreation, while opposing excessive mental exertion. “Cultivatingqi” subsequently became an important term in thelexicon of literary psychology.

例句 Examples:

◎我知言,我善养吾浩然之气。(《孟子.孙丑上》)

(我能够识别各种言论中的思想感情倾向,这是因为我懂得如何培养自己正大刚强的“气”。)

I am capable of differentiatingbetween the thoughts and sentiments people convey in their words because I knowhow to cultivate my qi, and keep it strong. (Mencius)

◎是以吐纳文艺,务在节宣,清和其心,调畅其气;烦而即舍,勿使壅滞。(刘勰《文心雕龙.养气》)

(因此从事写作必须学会节制和疏导,让内心纯净平和,将气调理顺畅,内心烦乱时就应停止,不要让思路滞涩。)

Hence, when engaging in writingone must learn how to constrain and regulate oneself, keep one’s mind pureand peaceful, and modulate one’s mental vitality andactivities. One should stop writing when upset so as not to disrupt one’s train of thinking. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)

意象yìxiàngYixiang (Imagery)

文学作品中表达作者主观情感和独特意境的典型物象。“意”指作者的思想情感;“象”是外在的具体物象,是寄寓了作者思想情感的艺术形象。在文学创作中,“意象”多指取自大自然中能够寄托情思的物象。“意象”强调文学作品的思想内容与形象之美的和谐生成,是一种成熟的文艺形态。

Imagery refers to a typicalimage in literary works, which embodies the author’s subjectivefeelings and unique artistic conceptions. Yi (意)literally means an author’s feelings and thoughts, andxiang (象) refers to the image of a material object inthe external world, an artistic image reflecting the author’s thoughts and feelings. In literary creation, imagery often refersto those images in nature with which an author’sfeelings and thoughts are associated. Emphasizing the harmonious relationshipbetween beauty in both form and content, it is a mature state of literarycreation.

例句 Examples:

◎窥意象而运斤。(刘勰《文心雕龙.神思》)

(探寻心中的意象而构思运笔。)

An author explores the imageryin his mind, conceives a work, and writes it down. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mindand the Carving of Dragons)

◎意象欲出,造化已奇。(司空图《二十四诗品.缜密》)

(诗歌的意象浑欲浮现,大自然是这般奇妙。)

What a wonderful state of natureit is when the imagery of a poem is about to emerge! (Sikong Tu: Twenty-FourStyles of Poetry)

阴阳yīnyáng Yin and Yang

本义指物体对于日光的向背,向日为“阳”,背日为“阴”。引申而有两重含义:其一,指天地之间性质相反的两种气;其二,指两种最基本的矛盾势力或属性,凡动的、热的、在上的、向外的、明亮的、亢进的、强壮的为“阳”,凡静的、寒的、在下的、向内的、晦暗的、减退的、虚弱的为“阴”。“阴”“阳”或“阴气”“阳气”的相互作用决定着万物的生成及存在状态。阴阳理论后来成为古人说明和理解宇宙万物、社会和人伦秩序的基础,如天阳地阴、君阳臣阴、夫阳妻阴等,阳贵阴贱,阳主阴从。

The primary meaning of yin andyang is the orientation of things in relation to the sun, with yang meaning thesunny side and yin the shady side. There are two extended meanings: 1) two opposite kinds of qi (气) in nature; and 2) two basic contrary forces or qualities that coexist,thus the active, hot, upward, outward, bright, forward, and strong are yang,while the passive, cold, downward, inward, dark, backward, and weak are yin.The interaction between yin and yang, or yin qi and yang qi, determines the formation and existence of all things. The theory of yin and yang later became the basis for ancient Chinese to explain and understand the universe and everything in it, social order, and human relations. For example, heaven isyang and earth is yin, ruler is yang and subordinates are yin, husband is yangand wife is yin, noble is yang and ignoble is yin, leading is yang andfollowing is yin.

例句 Examples:

◎万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。(《老子?四十二章》)

(万物背阴而向阳,阴阳两气互相激荡而成调和状态。)

All things stand, facing yang and against yin. The interaction between yin and yang creates a state of harmony. (Laozi)

◎阴阳无所独行。(董仲舒《春秋繁露?基义》)

(阴与阳不能单独发生作用。)

Yin and yang cannot work without each other. (Dong Zhongshu: Notes to The Spring and Autumn Annals)

有无yǒuwú You (Being) and Wu (Non-being)

“有无”有三种不同含义:其一,指个体事物的不同部分,实有的部分为“有”,空虚的部分为“无”;其二,指个体事物在生成、存在、消亡过程中的不同阶段或状态,既有之后、未消亡之前的状态为“有”,未有之前与既终之后的状态为“无”;其三,有形、有名的具体事物或其总和为“有”,超越一切个体事物的无形、无名的本体或本原为“无”。就第三个意义而言,有些哲学家认为“无”是世界的本体或本原,“有”生于“无”;另一些哲学家则认为“有”才是更根本的,反对“有”生于“无”。在“有无”对待的关系中,“有”与“无”既相互区别,又相互依赖。

The term has three definitions.First, it describes two different dimensions of things: one is real and theother unreal. Second, it refers to two different stages or states of a thing during its generation, existence, and demise. You (being) refers to the stateof a thing after it has come into being and before it dies out; wu (non-being)refers to the state of a thing before its birth and after its death. Third, yourefers to any tangible or identifiable thing or the sum total of such things;wu refers to the original source or ontological existence, which is intangibleand unidentifiable, and transcends all specific objects. With regard to the third definition, some philosophers consider wu to be the original source orontological existence of the world, and you comes from wu; others believe thatyou is fundamentally significant, and dispute the notion that you owes its existence to wu. Despite their differences, you and wu are mutually dependent.

例句 Examples:

◎故有之以为利,无之以为用。(《老子?十一章》)

(所以说事物“有”的部分带给人便利,“无”的部分发挥了事物的作用。)

Therefore, the being part of anobject provides ease and convenience, whereas the non-being part performs thefunctions of that object. (Laozi)

◎有之所始,以无为本。(王弼《老子注》)

(“有”之所以肇始存在,以“无”为根本。)

The formation and existence ofyou originate from wu. (Wang Bi: Annotations on Laozi)

缘起yuánqǐ Dependent Origination

梵文pratītyasamutpāda的意译。“缘起”就是“依缘(一定的条件)而起(发生)”。意思是一切事物、现象乃至社会的一切活动都是因缘和合体,都处于相续不断的因缘关系中,依一定条件而有生灭变化。“缘起”是佛教思想的起点,也是佛教各宗派所共有的理论基础。佛教以此解释宇宙万物、社会乃至各种精神现象变化无常、生灭变化的内在法则。

The term is a translation of theSanskrit word pratītyasamutpāda. Yuan (缘) means conditions; qi (起) meansorigination. That is to say, all things, phenomena, and social activities ariseout of the combinations of causes and conditions. They exist in the continuousrelationship between causes and conditions. Thus all things originate, change,and demise depending upon certain conditions. Dependent origination is thefountainhead of Buddhist thought and forms the common theoretical basis for allBuddhist schools and sects. Buddhism uses this concept to explain everything inthe universe, the constant changes of social and spiritual phenomena, and theinternal laws of origination, change, and demise.

例句 Example:

◎物从因缘故不有,缘起故不无。(僧肇《肇论》引《中论》)

(万物依因缘的聚合而成,故不能说“有”;又依一定的缘而有生灭变化,故不能说“无”。)

All things originate out of thecombinations of causes and conditions, thus they cannot be regarded as originalexistence; at the same time, they arise, change, and demise upon certainconditions, so they cannot be said as non-existence. (Sengzhao: Treatises ofSengzhao)

知音zhīyīn Resonance and Empathy

体会和理解文艺作品的意蕴与作者的思想感情。原指音乐欣赏中的知己,后经魏晋南北朝时期文艺批评家的阐释,用来泛指文艺鉴赏中的心心相印、互相理解。“知音”作为文学批评的核心概念,涉及文艺创作与鉴赏中的个体差异与共性等诸多问题,有着丰富的精神蕴涵,与西方的读者反应批评理论、接受美学、解释学等基本思想有一致之处。

The term is about appreciatingand understanding the ideas in literary and artistic works and the thoughts oftheir authors. The original meaning was feeling a sense of resonance withmusic. It was later extended by literary critics in the Wei, Jin, and Southernand Northern dynasties to mean resonance or empathy between writers/artists andtheir readers/viewers. As a core concept in literary criticism, it touches uponboth general and particular issues in artistic creation and appreciation,involves rich intellectual implications, and meshes with the audience’s response inWestern criticism, receptive aesthetics, and hermeneutics.

例句 Example:

◎是故不知声者不可与言音,不知音者不可与言乐,知乐则几于礼矣。(《礼记?乐记》)

(不懂自然声音的人无法与其谈论音律,不懂音律的人无法与其谈论音乐,通晓音乐的人也就接近懂得礼了。)

Talking about melody withsomeone who has no ear for natural sounds would be a waste of time, and sowould discussing music with someone who knows nothing about melody. One whoknows music is close to understanding social norms. (The Book of Rites)

直寻zhíxún Direct Quest

诗人即兴而感,直接抒写。这是南朝钟嵘《诗品》中针对诗歌过多使用典故的现象提出的创作主张,他汲取了道家的自然思想,通过考察前人的优秀诗篇,提炼出一种新的诗歌创作方式——“直寻”,即直接描写所感知事物,直接抒发内心情感并创造出情景契合的审美意象。明清时期诗学的“性灵说”受到其影响。

A poet should directly expresshis thoughts and sentiments when he is inspired. This is a concept for writingpoems proposed by poetry critic Zhong Rong of the Southern Dynasties in hiswork “The Critique of Poetry” as a reaction to theexcessive use of allusions and quotes from earlier works. Inspired bynaturalist ideas of Daoism and by his own reading of the fine works of earlierpoets, he developed a new form of poetic creation which he named “direct quest.” By this, he meant directlydescribing matters that one senses and learns about, directly expressing one’s inner feelings, and creating aesthetic images in which thesensibilities match up with current realities. The theory of naturaldisposition and intelligence used in Ming- and Qing-dynasty poetics wasinfluenced by this idea.

例句 Examples:

◎观古今胜语,多非补假,皆由直寻。(钟嵘《诗品序》)

(综观古今名篇佳句,大都不是借用前人诗句或使用典故,而是直接从自身体验中寻求而得。)

A comprehensive survey of thebest-known works of ancient and current poets shows that most of the poets didnot borrow favored lines or literary allusions from their predecessors, butdirectly sought inspirations from their personal experiences. (Zhong Rong:Preface to “The Critique of Poetry”)

◎我手写我口,古岂能拘牵?(黄遵宪《杂感五首》之二)

(我要用我的文字来表达我想说的意思,怎么能够为古人文章的思想内容和文字形式所束缚?)

Since I want to use my own wordsto express my feelings, how can I let myself be bound by the content and formsof ancient writings? (Huang Zunxian: Five Poems on Random Thoughts)

中国zhōngguó Zhongguo (China)

古代华夏族、汉民族以黄河中下游流域为中心生活和活动的区域。“中国”最初是一个地域兼文化的概念。华夏族多建国于黄河流域一带,以为居天下之中,故称“中国”(与“四方”相对)。后泛指中原地区以及在中原地区建立的政权和国家。晚清以来,“中国”始专指我国的全部领土与主权,现在只作为“中华人民共和国”的简称。

This term refers to the areasalong the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River where ancient Huaxia (华夏) people orthe Han people lived. Originally, the term Zhongguo (中国)meant both this region and its culture. The Huaxia people established theirstates along the Yellow River. Believing the areas were located in the centerof the world, they called it Zhongguo (the Central Country, as against otherareas around it). Later, the term was used to refer to the Central Plains inNorth China and the states founded in that area. Since the late Qing Dynasty,Zhongguo has been used to refer specifically to all the territory of China andits sovereignty. Currently, Zhongguo is used as the abbreviated form of thePeople’s Republic of China.

例句 Examples:

◎惠此中国,以绥四方。(《诗经?大雅?民劳》)

(爱护京师百姓,安抚四方诸侯。)

Give benefit to the people inthe capital, and reassure and pacify all the feudal dukes and princes in thecountry. (The Book of Songs)

◎若能以吴越之众与中国抗衡,不如早与之绝。(《三国志?蜀书?诸葛亮传》)

(如果能够以江东的兵力与中原抗衡,不如早与他们断绝交往。)

If the areas of Wu and Yue(under the control of Sun Quan) could stand up to confront the central region(under the control of Cao Cao), the former should better cut ties with thelatter. (History of the Three Kingdoms)

中华zhōnghuá Zhonghua

“中华”是“中国”与“华夏”复合的简称。“华”同“花”,喻指文化灿烂。华夏的先民建国于黄河中下游,自认为居天下之中央,且又文化发达,所以称“中华”。随着华夏族为主体的多民族国家的不断扩张,凡所统辖之地,皆称中华。在近现代历史中,“中华”成为指称中国、中国人及中国文化的一种符号。

This term is an abbreviation ofthe compound word formed by Zhongguo (中国) and Huaxia (华夏). Here, hua (华) also means “flower” or “flowery,” which was used as an analogy for a splendid culture. The ancestorsof the Huaxia people established their state in the middle and lower reaches ofthe Yellow River, which they thought was the center (zhong) of the world andwhich had a flourishing culture (hua), so the state was called Zhonghua. Thismulti-ethnic state, with the Huaxia people as the predominant group of itspopulation, later began its territorial expansions, and the places where itextended to became part of Zhonghua. In modern times, Zhonghua became a termdenoting China, the Chinese people, and its culture.

例句 Example:

◎中华者,中国也。亲被王教,自属中国,衣冠威仪,习俗孝悌,居身礼义,故谓之中华。(《唐律名例疏议释义》)

(中华即中国。自身接受了王道教化,自然就属于中国了,穿衣戴帽有威仪,风俗讲究孝悌,立身处世追求礼义,所以称之为中华。)

Zhonghua refers to China. Underthe wise rule of the sage king, all his subjects belong to China. They aredressed in a dignified manner, practice filial piety, love and respect theelderly, and follow moral norms in personal and social conduct. This is thecountry called Zhonghua. (Commentary and Explanation on Well-Known Law Cases ofthe Tang Dynasty)

中庸zhōngyōng Zhongyong (Golden Mean)

孔子和儒家所肯定的最高德行。“中”指言行没有过或不及的状态或标准。凡事都有某种限度,超过和达不到这个限度都是不好的。“庸”包含两个相关的含义:其一指平常,其二指恒常。“中”只有在平常日用之中才能恒常不易。“中庸”即指在人伦日用中始终遵循、符合无过无不及的标准。

Zhongyong (golden mean) wasconsidered to be the highest level of virtue by Confucius and Confucianscholars. Zhong (中) means moderate in one’s words and deeds.Everything has its limits, and neither exceeding nor falling short of thelimits is desirable. Yong (庸) has two meanings. One iscommon or ordinary and the other is unchanging. Moderation can be maintained forover a long time only when one practices it in everyday life. Zhongyong meansthe standard of moderation that one should follow in dealing with others and inone’s everyday conduct.

例句 Examples:

◎中庸之为德也,其至矣乎!(《论语?雍也》)

(中庸作为一种道德,是最高的准则吧!)

Zhongyong is the highest ofvirtues. (The Analects)

◎中庸者,不偏不倚、无过不及而平常之理。(朱熹《中庸章句》)

(中庸就是不偏颇,没有过或不及的平常的道理。)

Zhongyong does not bend one wayor the other; it is the common principle of neither exceeding nor falling shortof the line. (Zhu Xi: Commentary on The Doctrine of the Mean)

滋味zīwèi Nuanced Flavor

诗歌中能够使欣赏者反复回味的意蕴,实即诗歌美感。南朝诗论家钟嵘在《诗品》中提出,五言诗歌创作时应重视内容与形式的配合,从而使欣赏者在品读中回味无穷。后来“滋味”也指从事文艺创作时的一种趣味。

This term refers to an effectthat allows lasting satisfaction and rewarding in poetry appreciation, which isa particular sense of beauty offered by poetry. In the Southern Dynasties,poetry critic Zhong Rong proposed in “The Critique of Poetry” that in writing five-character-per-line poems, one should payspecial attention to the combination of form and content, so that readers couldenjoy a poem with inexhaustible delight. Later, nuanced flavor also came torefer to a kind of taste in literary and artistic creation.

例句 Example:

◎五言居文词之要,是众作之有滋味者也。(钟嵘《诗品序》)

(五言诗在各种诗体中居于首位,是众多作品中最有审美意味的。)

Five-character-per-line poemsconstitute the most important poetic form and are most richly imbued withnuanced flavors. (Zhong Rong: Preface to “The Critique of Poetry”)

自然zìrán Naturalness

事物的本来状态,旨在与“人为”的意义相区别。哲学意义上的“自然”的概念,与常识性的“自然界”的概念不同。在日常语义中,“自然界”指人与社会之外的物质世界,这一领域是不受人为干扰的。但从哲学层面来看,人与社会也有其“自然”状态。在政治哲学领域,“自然”特指百姓在不受行政教化干预的情况下自己而然的状态。道家主张,君主治理国家应遵循、顺应百姓的“自然”状态。

The term refers to theprimordial state of things, unaffected by the various meanings imposed on it byman. The concept of naturalness in philosophy is different from that of naturein the ordinary sense. In daily language, the term refers to the physicalworld, which is independent of human interference, as opposed to human society.In philosophy, there is also a natural state of man and society. In politicalphilosophy, “naturalness” specifically applies to thenatural state enjoyed by ordinary people free from the intervention ofgovernment supervision and moral edification. Daoism holds that in governance amonarch should conform to the natural state of the people.

例句 Examples:

◎道法自然。(《老子?二十五章》)

(道以自然为法则。)

Dao takes naturalness as itslaw. (Laozi)

◎天地任自然,无为无造,万物自相治理。(王弼《老子注》)

(天地听任万物之自然,不施为造作,而让万物自己相互治理。)

Heaven and earth alloweverything to follow their natural course without imposing any interference sothat all things interact and govern themselves. (Wang Bi: Annotations on Laozi)

宗法zōngfǎ Feudal Clan System

中国古代以家族为中心,按血统、嫡庶来组织、治理家族、国家、社会的原则、方法。宗法由父系氏族的家长制演化而来,定型于西周,与封建制等互为表里。宗法分为家国两个层面,在家的层面,宗族的嫡长子是家族的嫡系继承人,拥有家族的最高权力,其余家族成员依据亲疏、世系各自确定其在家族中的地位和权力。帝王公侯或者世家大族的宗族等级制扩展到国家的层面,对于王位继承与国家政治具有决定性的作用。宗法制数千年来对中国人的生活方式、思维方式影响深远。

This system was central to lifein ancient China; it was a system of principles and measures by which a clan, astate, or society was run, based on bloodline or whether a son was born fromthe wife or a concubine. The feudal clan system evolved from the patriarchalchiefs system. Taking shape during the Western Zhou Dynasty, this system andthe feudal system were mutually dependent and complementary. The feudal clansystem had two levels: one was the familial level, where the eldest son by thewife was the first in line to inherit the family’s property and thus enjoyed thegreatest authority. Other members of the clan were allotted their status andauthority according to their closeness of kinship, ancestry, or seniority. Inthe families of the emperor, kings, and other nobility, this pattern wasextended to the state or national level. It had a decisive impact on theinheritance of the imperial throne and on state politics. The feudal clansystem greatly influenced the Chinese way of life and thinking for severalthousand years.

例句 Example:

◎宗法者,佐国家养民教民之原本也。(冯桂芬《复宗法议》)

(所谓宗法,是帮助国家养育、教化民众的原始基础。)

The feudal clan system is astate’s bedrock for fostering and educating its people. (Feng Guifen: MyArgument for Restoring the Feudal Clan System)

风雅颂fēngyǎsòng Ballad, Court Hymn, and Eulogy

《诗经》中依体裁与音乐对诗歌所分出的类型。“风(国风)”是不同地区的地方音乐,大部分是民歌;“雅”是宫廷宴享或朝会时的乐歌,分为“大雅”与“小雅”,大部分是贵族文人的作品;“颂”是宗庙祭祀用的舞曲歌辞,内容多是歌颂祖先的功业。“雅”“颂”指雅正之音,而“国风”系民间乐歌,因此“风雅颂”既是《诗经》的体裁,同时也有高雅纯正的含义。“风雅”后来一般指典雅与高雅的事物。

In The Book of Songs, thecontent is divided into three categories according to style and tune: feng(ballads), ya (court hymns), and song (eulogies). Ballads are music fromdifferent regions, mostly folk songs. Court hymns, divided into daya (majorhymns) and xiaoya (minor hymns), are songs sung at court banquets or grandceremonies. They are mostly the works by lettered noblemen. Eulogies are ritualor sacrificial dance music and songs, most of which praise the achievements ofancestors. Court hymns and eulogies are highbrow songs while ballads arelowbrow ones. Therefore, ballads, court hymns, and eulogies not only refer tothe styles of The Book of Songs but also classify the songs into highbrow andlowbrow categories. Later on fengya (风雅) generally referred to anythingelegant.

例句 Example:

◎故《诗》有六义焉:一曰风,二曰赋,三曰比,四曰兴,五曰雅,六曰颂。(《诗大序》)

(所以《诗经》有六项基本内容:即风、赋、比、兴、雅、颂。)

Therefore The Book of Songs hassix basic elements: ballads, narratives, analogies, association, court hymns,and eulogies. (Preface to The Book of Songs)

赋比兴fùbǐxīng Narrative, Analogy, andAssociation

《诗经》创作的三种表现手法。“赋”是铺陈事物直接叙述;“比”是类比;“兴”是先言他物以引出所咏之词,有两层含义,一是即兴感发,二是在感发时借客观景物婉转地表达出某种思想感情。“赋比兴”为汉代儒家所总结和提出,后来演变为中国古代文学创作的基本原则和方法。

These are the three ways ofexpression employed in The Book of Songs: a narrative is a direct reference toan object or an event, an analogy metaphorically likens one thing to another,and an association is an impromptu expression of a feeling, a mood or athought, or using an objective thing as metaphor for sensibilities. Confucianscholars of the Han Dynasty summarized and formulated this concept ofnarrative, analogy, and association, which later became the basic principle andmethod in classical Chinese literary creation.

例句 Examples:

◎赋、比、兴是《诗》之所用,风、雅、颂是《诗》之成形。(《诗大序》孔颖达正义)

(赋、比、兴是《诗经》创作的三种手法,风、雅、颂是《诗经》体制上的定型。)

In The Book of Songs, narrative,analogy, and association are three techniques in its creation, whereas ballads,court hymns, and eulogies represent three established styles of the poems.(Kong Yingda: Correct Meaning of “Preface to The Book of Songs”)

◎赋者,敷陈其事而直言之者也;比者,以彼物比此物也;兴者,先言他物以引起所咏之词也。(朱熹《诗集传》)

(赋,是铺陈事物而直接叙述;比,就是以他事物比喻此事物;兴,就是先说他物然后再引出所吟咏的事物。)

A narrative is a directdescription of an object, an event or a relationship. An analogy metaphoricallylikens one thing to another. An association employs a metaphor as a lead-in forthe real subject of a poem. (Zhu Xi: Studies on The Book of Songs)

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发愤著书fāfèn-zhùshū Indignation Spurs One to WriteGreat Works.

因在现实生活中遭遇不平而下决心写出传世著作。源出《史记?太史公自序》。西汉司马迁在遭受宫刑后,强烈的愤懑情绪成为他创作《史记》的驱动力。他借《史记》表达自己的思想、感情、志向,最终使著作流传于世。“发愤著书”后多用来解释优秀的文艺作品的创作动机和原因。这一术语揭示了优秀的文学作品的产生往往与作者个人的不幸遭遇有直接关联。后世在此基础上又衍生出“不平则鸣”“诗穷而后工”等观点。

This term means sufferinginjustice in life can spur one to create great works. It originated from the “Preface by theGrand Historian to Records of the Historian.” AfterSima Qian, an official in the Western Han Dynasty, suffered the unjustpunishment of castration, his indignation spurred him to write the great work,Records of the Historian. In the book he gave expression to his thoughts,feelings, and aspirations, which made the book a classic for later generations.The expression “indignation spurs one to write greatworks” was used to explain one of the motivations andreasons for creating masterpieces. It points to the fact that injusticesuffered by an author often turns out to be the source of inspiration for himto write a literary masterpiece. It later led to similar terms like “Where there is injustice there will be an expression of indignation” and “Frustration inspires poets to writefine poems.”

例句 Examples:

◎惜诵以致愍兮,发愤以抒情。(屈原《九章?惜诵》)

(痛惜直言进谏却招致谗毁疏远,怀着一腔忧愤抒发衷情。)

I am saddened that my frankremonstration with the king has brought false accusations on me and left me inexile. In anguish and indignation, I am writing these poems to express mystrong feelings. (Qu Yuan: Collection of Nine Pieces)

◎《诗》三百篇,大抵圣贤发愤之所为作也。此人皆意有所郁结,不得通其道,故述往事、思来者。(司马迁《报任安书》)

(《诗经》三百篇,大都是圣贤抒发忧愤而创作出来的。这些人都是情意郁结,不能实现志向,所以记述往事,希望将来的人能够了解。)

Most of the 300 poems in TheBook of Songs were written by sages who were in anguish and indignation. Theywere depressed over what had prevented them from fulfilling their aspirations,so they composed poems about what had happened in the hope that futuregenerations would understand them. (Sima Qian: A Letter of Reply to Ren An)

怀远以德huái yuǎn yǐ dé Embrace Distant States by Meansof Virtue

指用恩惠、仁德去安抚、怀柔边远地区的部族、民众等。是历代华夏族政权用以处理与其他民族、未纳入直接统治范围的边远部族以及外国关系的一种政治理念,也是“以德服人”思想的重要方面。中国是一个多民族国家,以华夏族为主体的政权,自认为是大国并且文化发达,对于那些远离中华文化的边远部族、民众等,一般不采取武力征服,而是用比较温和、合于儒家“仁德”的手段,达到安抚并使之归顺的目的。

This expression refers topursuing conciliatory and benevolent policies and offering benefits to tribesand groups in remote areas. It was a political concept adopted by successivegovernments led mostly by the Han people in their relations with other ethnicgroups, tribes in remote areas not yet directly under their rule, and foreignstates. It also represented an important component of the theory of winningover others by virtue. China was, as it is today, a multi-ethnic country. TheHan-led government ruled over a large territory and believed that they had anadvanced culture. They usually took a conciliatory approach based on theConfucian concept of benevolence in dealing with the tribes and populations inremote regions, rather than conquering them by force, with the goal ofplacating them and winning their allegiance.

例句 Example:

◎管仲言于齐侯曰:臣闻之,招携以礼,怀远以德,德礼不易,无人不怀。(《左传?僖公七年》)

(管仲对齐侯道:臣听说,招抚尚未归顺的诸侯,用礼;安抚边远地区的国家,用德。不违背德和礼,没有人会不归附。)

Guan Zhong said to the Marquisof Qi, “I have heard it said: Win over the disaffected with respect andembrace distant states with virtue. With virtue and respect unchanging, thereis no one that will not be embraced.” (Zuo’s Commentary on The Spring and Autumn Annals)

利用厚生lìyòng-hòushēng Make Full Use of Resources toEnrich the People

充分发挥物力的效用,使民众生活富裕。古人认为,良好的政治在于“养民”,让民众生活富足。“利用”讲的是统治者应当节俭而不奢靡浪费,使物尽其用;“厚生”讲的是减轻徭役赋税,使民众生活安宁、富裕、幸福。它是中国近代民生主义、社会主义的思想渊源之一。

The ancient Chinese believedthat good governance allowed people to lead a life of plenty. The ruler shouldbe frugal, not extravagant or wasteful. He should make good use of the country’s materialresources, reduce the corvée and tax burdens on thepeople so that they could live peaceful, prosperous, and happy lives. Thisbelief was one of the sources of advocation for the people’s livelihood and socialist thinking in modern China.

例句 Example:

◎德惟善政,政在养民……正德、利用、厚生,惟和。(《尚书?大禹谟》)

(帝王的德行要体现为良好的施政,施政要以养育民众为目的……端正德行、物尽其用、使民众富裕,这三项工作要兼顾协调,配合得当。)

A ruler should manifest hisvirtue in good governance, and the goal of governance is to bring a good lifeto the people… The ruler should act in an upright and virtuous manner, and ensurethat the country’s resources are put to good use andthat the people live a prosperous life. These three goals complement oneanother. (The Book of History)

民惟邦本mín wéi bāng běn People Being the Foundation ofthe State

指民众是国家的根本或基础。只有百姓安居乐业、生活稳定,国家才能安定。最早见于伪《古文尚书》所载大禹的训示。这与战国时代孟子提出的“民为贵,社稷次之,君为轻”,荀子提出的“水能载舟,亦能覆舟”的思想一脉相承,并由此形成儒家所推崇的“民本”思想。

This term means that the peopleare the essence of the state or the foundation upon which it stands. Only whenpeople live and work in peace and contentment can the state be peaceful andstable. This saying, which first appeared in a pseudo-version of The ClassicalBook of History as an instruction by Yu the Great, can be traced to Mencius’ statement: “The essence of a state is the people, next come the god of land andthe god of grain (which stand for state power), and the last the ruler,” and Xunzi’s statement, “Just as water can float a boat, so can water overturn it.” This idea gave rise to the “people first” thought advocated by Confucianism.

例句 Example:

◎皇祖有训:民可近,不可下。民惟邦本,本固邦宁。(《尚书·五子之歌》)

(我们的祖先大禹曾经告诫说:民众只可以亲近,不能认为他们卑微。民众是国家的根本,根本稳固了国家才能安宁。)

Our ancestor Yu the Greatwarned: (a ruler) must maintain a close relationship with the people; he mustnot regard them as insignificant. They are the foundation of a state, and astate can enjoy peace only when its foundation is firm. (The Book of History)

人文化成rénwén-huàchéng Ren Wen Hua Cheng

根据社会文明的进展程度与实际状况,用合于“人文”的基本精神和原则教化民众,引导民心向善,最终实现有差等又有调和的社会秩序。“人文”指的是诗书、礼乐、法度等精神文明的创造;“化”是教化、教导(民众)并使之改变,“成”指社会文治昌明的实现。“人文化成”的核心在于强调文治,实际上是中华“文明”理想的又一表达形式。

The term is used to describeefforts to teach people essential ideals and principles of ren wen (人文) and guidethem to embrace goodness with the aim of building a harmonious –albeit hierarchical – social order, according to the level of development ofa civilization and the specifics of the society. Ren wen refers to poetry,books, social norms, music, law, and other non-material components ofcivilization. Hua (化) means to edify the populace; cheng (成)refers to the establishment or prosperity of rule by civil means (as opposed toforce). The concept emphasizes rule by civil means, and is another expressionof the Chinese concept of “civilization.”

例句 Example:

◎观乎天文,以察时变;观乎人文,以化成天下。(《周易·贲》)

(观察日月星辰的运行状态,可以知道四季的变换;考察诗书礼乐的发展状况,可以用来教化天下百姓,实现文治昌明。)

Observing the movements of thesun, moon, and stars helps us learn about the change of seasons; studying thedevelopment of poetry, books, social norms, and music enables us to edify thepopulace so that the rule by civil means can prosper. (The Book of Changes)

顺天应人shùntiān-yìngrén Follow the Mandate of Heaven andComply with the Wishes of the People

顺应上天的旨意和民众的意愿。“天”即“天命”,指上天旨意。古人认为,有德行的人秉承上天意志而确立政权,成为君主,故称为“天命”。“人”指人心、民意。它与西方“君权神授”思想相似,但它还强调人心、民意,体现了人本思想。在古代它常被用于称扬新朝代的建立和社会重大变革的实施,以表明其正当性、合法性。

The ancient Chinese believedthat virtuous men followed the will of heaven in establishing a politicalregime and becoming its sovereigns; hence their success came from the mandateof heaven. This thought is similar to the Western notion of the divine right ofkings; but it also emphasizes the wishes and will of the people, orpeople-centered thinking. In ancient China, this phrase was often used inpraise of the founding of a new dynasty, and the implementation of major socialreforms to justify its legitimacy.

例句 Example:

◎天地革而四时成。汤武革命,顺乎天而应乎人。(《周易·革》)

(天地有阴阳的变化而形成一年四季。商汤、周武王变革天命[推翻旧政权,建立新政权],是顺应了上天的旨意和人民的意愿。)

Changes of yin and yang inheaven and earth give rise to the four seasons. Following the mandate of heavenand complying with the wishes of the people, King Tang and King Wu overthrewold regimes and established the Shang and Zhou dynasties respectively. (TheBook of Changes)

为政以德wéi zhèng yǐ dé Governance Based on Virtue

以道德原则执掌国政,治理国家。孔子在西周统治者一向秉承的“明德慎罚”的基础上提出了为后世儒家所遵循的“德政”理念。“德政”与“威刑”相对。“为政以德”并非不要刑法,而是突出强调道德对政治的决定作用,将道德教化视为治国的根本原则与方法。

Governance of a state should beguided by virtue. Confucius expounded this philosophy –which his followers in later eras promoted – on the basis of theapproach advocated by the rulers in the Western Zhou Dynasty that prized highmoral values and the virtue of being cautious in meting out punishment.Governance based on virtue stands in contrast to rule by use of harshpunishment as a deterrent. It does not, however, exclude the use of punishment,but rather highlights the decisive role of virtue in governance, and regardsmoral edification both as the fundamental principle and the essential means forachieving good governance.

例句 Example:

◎为政以德,譬如北辰居其所,而众星共之。(《论语·为政》)

(以道德教化来治理政事,就像北极星位于天空一定的方位,而众星都环绕着它运行。)

Governance based on virtue islike the North Star taking its place in the sky, while all the other starsrevolve around it. (The Analects)

文以载道wén yǐ zài dào Literature Is the Vehicle ofIdeas.

儒家关于文学与道关系的论述。“文”指的是文学创作及作品;“道”指的是作品中的思想内容,但古代文学家与理学家将“道”主要理解为儒家所倡导的思想和道德。中唐时期古文运动的领袖韩愈等人提出“文以明道”的观点,认为文章主旨应合乎并发挥圣人的经典。宋代理学家周敦颐进一步发展为“文以载道”,提出文学像“车”,“道”即是车上运载的货物,文学不过是用以传播儒家之“道”的手段和工具。这一命题的价值在于强调文学的社会功用,强调文学作品应该言之有物、有正确的思想内容。但它轻视文学自身的审美特性,故后来受到重视文学自身价值的思想家与文学家的反对。

This term is a Confucianstatement about the relationship between literature and ideas. Wen (文) refers toliterary creations and works, while dao (道) refers tothe ideas conveyed by literary works. Writers and philosophers in ancient Chinaexplicated these ideas as Confucian thought and ethics. Han Yu (leader of themid-Tang-dynasty movement advocating the prose style of the Qin and Handynasties) and some others proposed that the purpose of writings should be inline with the classics of the ancient sages as well as promote them. ZhouDunyi, a neo-Confucian philosopher of the Song Dynasty, expounded the principleof literature serving as a vehicle of ideas. He concluded that literature waslike a vehicle while ideas were like goods loaded on it, and that literaturewas nothing but a means and a vehicle to convey Confucian ideas. This theorywas valuable because it stressed the social role of literature and emphasizedthat writers should know what they were writing about to ensure that theirworks conveyed correct ideas. However, it underestimated the aesthetic value ofliterature and later met opposition from thinkers and writers who emphasizedthe value of literature per se.

例句 Example:

◎文所以载道也。轮辕饰而人弗庸,徒饰也,况虚车乎?文辞,艺也;道德,实也。(周敦颐《通书·文辞》)

(文章是用来承载思想和道德的。车轮与车辕过度装饰而没人使用,白白装饰了,更何况那些派不上用场的车呢?文辞,只是一种技艺,而道德才是文章的实质。)

Writings are meant to conveyideas and ethics. When vehicles are not used, even if the wheels and shafts areexcessively decorated, it is simply a waste. Fine language is only a means forwriting, whereas ethics are the essence of writings. (Zhou Dunyi: The Gist ofConfucian Thought)

协和万邦xiéhé-wànbāng Coexistence of All in Harmony

指古代有贤德的君主通过实行仁政,将天下诸侯都聚集在自己周围,以实现不同民族的融合和文化上的涵化,形成和谐统一的部落联盟或多民族国家。这一思想是中国文化整体和谐观的重要表现,是中华民族文化精神的核心观念。

The term refers to the exerciseof benevolent government by virtuous and wise rulers in ancient China to winthe allegiance of all the vassals, so as to achieve an integration andacculturation of different ethnic groups and create a harmonious and unifiedalliance of tribes or a multi-ethnic state. Harmonious coexistence of all is akey feature of the concept of social harmony in Chinese culture and one of thecore values of the Chinese nation.

例句 Example:

◎克明俊德,以亲九族。九族既睦,平章百姓。百姓昭明,协和万邦,黎民于变时雍。(《尚书?尧典》)

([帝尧]能够明扬大德,使自己的氏族亲善。自己的氏族亲善以后,辨明部落百官族姓的等次。百官族姓的等次明晰之后,大大小小的诸侯国才能和谐共融,普通民众也才能变得和睦。)

(Emperor Yao) was able topromote moral values, so that amity prevailed in his clan. He then clarifiedthe hierarchical order of tribal officials. Only when this was done could allvassal states, big and small, prosper in harmony, and the people becomefriendly with each other. (The Book of History)

兴观群怨xīng guān qún yuàn Stimulation, Contemplation,Sociability, and Criticism

孔子所提出的《诗经》的四种主要功能,实际也是对文学基本功能与价值的高度概括。“兴”是指通过作品的欣赏引发联想,激发欣赏者对于社会人生的思考与志趣提升;“观”是通过作品认识自然与社会人生的各种状况,透视政治得失;“群”是围绕作品与别人展开讨论,交流思想感情;“怨”是表达对社会时政的不满,宣泄内心的情感。这四种功能有着内在的联系,涉及文学的审美功能、认识功能与教育功能。后世学者对此不断有新的阐发。

According to Confucius, The Bookof Songs served these four purposes, which summarize the basic functions andvalues of literature. “Stimulation” means that the appreciation ofliterary works arouses imagination, stimulates reflection on society and life,and inspires aspirations and interests. “Contemplation” means that reading leads to understanding nature, society, life,and politics. “Sociability”means that reading encourages discussion with others, and exchange of thoughtsand feelings. “Criticism” meanslearning how to critically express oneself about state affairs and voice innerfeelings. These four functions are closely associated and involve theaesthetic, cognitive, and educational functions of literature. Later scholarshave continued to make original contributions to the study of these themes.

例句 Examples:

◎《诗》可以兴,可以观,可以群,可以怨;迩之事父,远之事君;多识于鸟、兽、草、木之名。(《论语?阳货》)

(《诗经》可以感发志向,引发思考,认识世界,可以交流思想感情,表达不满情绪。在家可以用它来侍奉父母,出外可以用它来侍奉国君,还可以从中学到鸟兽草木等众多事物的知识。)

The Book of Songs stimulates themind, inspires contemplation, enables one to understand society, exchangefeelings and thoughts with others, and express resentment. The book guides oneon how to support and wait on one’s parents at home and how to serve one’s sovereign in public life. One can also learn about birds, beasts,and plants from the book. (The Analects)

◎于所兴而可观,其兴也深;于所观而可兴,其观也审;以其群者而怨,怨愈不忘;以其怨者而群,群乃益挚。(王夫之《姜斋诗话》卷上)

(经过作者感兴后的作品又具备认识价值,那么这种感兴一定深刻;经过认识又能够激发情感的,那么这种认识一定真实明察;因为聚在一起而产生某种怨恨,那么这种怨恨更加使人难忘;因为某种怨恨而聚成群体,这样的群体一定会更加紧密。)

If works created on the basis ofthe author’s understanding have the value of cognition, his understanding musthave been profound. If his feelings are based on recognition, his observationmust have been sharp. If certain resentment arises from discussions among agroup of people, it must be unforgettable. If a group of people have cometogether because they share certain resentment, they must be closely knit.(Wang Fuzhi: Desultory Remarks on Poetry from Ginger Studio)

修齐治平

xiūqízhìpíng

Self-cultivation, FamilyRegulation, State Governance, Bringing Peace to All Under Heaven

“修身”“齐家”“治国”“平天下”的缩写。以个人自身修养为基础逐步向外扩展,先治理好家庭,进而治理好邦国,更进而安抚和治理天下百姓。这是中国古代儒家伦理哲学和政治抱负的一个重要命题,体现了儒家由个人而家而国而天下层层递进的道德政治观。在逐步向外扩展的过程中,个人的德行和修养与不同层面的政治抱负息息相关。

Self-cultivation is the startingpoint of several steps moving outward. The next step is managing familyaffairs, followed by governing the state. The final step is moving to providepeace and sound governance to all under heaven. This process is a fundamentaltheme in Confucian moral philosophy and discourse on politics. It is agradually expanding process beginning with the individual and emanating outwardinto serving and benefiting an ever-larger whole. In such a process anindividual’s virtue and self-improvement are inseparable from his politicalaspirations.

例句 Example:

◎古之欲明明德于天下者,先治其国。欲治其国者,先齐其家。欲齐其家者,先修其身。(《礼记?大学》

(过去想要让美德在全天下发扬光大的人,先要治理好自己的邦国。想要治理好自己的邦国,先要治理好自己的家[周朝时为封地]。想要治理好自己的家,先要努力提高自身修养。)

The ancients, who wished topromote illustrious virtue under heaven, first had to rule their own stateswell. Wishing to govern their states well, they first had to manage theirfiefdoms well. Wishing to manage their fiefdoms well, they first had tocultivate themselves. (The Book of Rites)

有教无类

yǒujiào-wúlèi

Education for All WithoutDiscrimination

任何人都可以或必须接受教化;而人接受了教化,也就没有了因贵贱、贫富等而产生的差异。(一说:在教学时对学生一视同仁,不会按地位、贫富等将学生分成差等。)“教”指礼乐教化,即“人文”;“类”即种类,指贵贱、贫富、智愚、善恶、地域、种族等差别、区分。“有教无类”所昭示的是一种超越等级、地域、种族等差别的普及教育思想,更是一种主张平等待人、反对种种歧视的“人文”精神。

Education can and must beprovided for all. It eliminates the differences in social status and wealth.(Another explanation is that education should be provided to students withoutdiscrimination on the basis of social status or wealth.) Education consists ofteaching of social norms, music, and moral principles. A non-discriminatoryapproach to education means making no distinction between students based ontheir social status, wealth, mental capability, moral character, geographiclocation, or ethnicity. Transcending differences in social status, geography,and ethnicity, education for all without discrimination is a humanistic idealthat champions equal treatment of all people and rejects all forms ofdiscrimination.

例句 Example:

◎圣人之道无不通,故曰“有教无类”。彼创残之余,以穷归我。我援护之,收处内地,将教以礼法,职以耕农……何患之恤?(《新唐书?突厥传上》)

(圣人的道德教化无处不相通,所以说“只要接受了统一的教化,就不会再有因地域、种族产生的差异”。他们突厥人遭受战争创伤,因处困境而归顺于大唐。我们帮助、保护他们,把他们迁入内地定居,教他们礼仪法度,使他们以耕田务农为业……有什么可忧虑的呢?)

The moral values promoted byancient sages are universal. That is why “once the same education is provided,differences in geography and ethnicity would be smoothed out.” When the Tujue people who suffered from war trauma and were inpredicament submitted themselves to the Tang Dynasty, we should assist andprotect them, let them settle down among us, teach them social norms and law,and help them engage in farming… What should we beworried about? (The New Tang History)

紫之夺朱

zǐ zhī duó zhū

Purple Prevailing over Red

指社会生活与文学艺术等领域以邪乱正、真伪混淆的现象。朱指红色,古人认为是正色,而紫色则看作杂色,“夺”是胜过的意思。孔子对于在春秋时期出现邪正不分、淫靡的音乐取代雅正音乐的现象十分反感,提出要加以正本清源、拨乱反正。南朝刘勰借此批评有的作者在文章写作上背离了儒家经典,迎合人们的猎奇心理。后世以此倡导确立儒家的文学标准与规范。

This refers to evil prevailing overgood and falsehood being mistaken for truth in literature and art as well as insocial life. It is red, not purple, that was viewed as a truly proper color bythe ancient Chinese. Confucius, upset by the loss of judgment over good andevil, and by the fact that vulgar music was taking the place of refinedclassical music in the Spring and Autumn Period, called for dispellingconfusion and putting things in the right order. With this in mind, Liu Xie ofthe Southern Dynasties criticized some writers for abandoning Confucianteachings and catering to vulgar tastes. Scholars of later generations usedthis notion to reaffirm Confucian criteria and norms for literary creation.

例句 Examples:

◎子曰:“恶紫之夺朱也,恶郑声之乱雅乐也,恶利口之覆邦家者。”(《论语·阳货》)

(孔子说:“我厌恶用紫色取代红色,厌恶用郑国的音乐扰乱雅正的音乐,憎恶伶牙俐齿而使国家倾覆的人。”)

Confucius said, “I detestreplacing red with purple and interfering refined classical music with themusic of the State of Zheng. I loathe those who overthrow the state with theirglib tongues.” (The Analects)

◎辞为肌肤,志实骨髓。雅丽黼黻,淫巧朱紫。(刘勰《文心雕龙·体性》)

(文辞好比文章的皮肤,作者的思想感情才是文章的骨髓。高雅的文章犹如上古礼服所绣的花纹那样华丽庄重,过分追求辞藻与技巧则如同杂色搅乱了正色。)

Rhetoric is like the skin of anessay; the writer’s thoughts and feelings are its marrow. A piece of elegant writingis like the embroidery on a ceremonial gown in ancient times –magnificent and dignified. Excessive focus on rhetoric and technique, however,is no different from an abnormal color taking the place of a truly proper one.(Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

自然英旨

zìrán yīngzhǐ

Charm of Spontaneity

在诗歌创作中不假雕饰地呈现自然万物之美和人的真情实感。“英旨”本义是美好的滋味,用为文学术语,指诗歌美妙的内容和意境。南朝钟嵘在《诗品序》中,要求诗人用自己的语言直接抒写思想感情,反对借用前人的诗句来吟咏自己的情志,批评五言诗创作中过度讲究辞藻和声律,认为符合“自然英旨”的创作才是最为珍贵的诗歌作品。后世文论中的“自然”“天真”等词传承了上述内涵。

This term means poetry creationshould present the unembellished beauty of nature and the genuine sentiments ofhuman beings. The original meaning of yingzhi (英旨) is good taste. Used as aliterary term, however, it refers to charming content and imagery in poetry. In“Preface to ‘The Critique ofPoetry,’” Zhong Rong of the Southern Dynasties calledon poets to express their thoughts and sentiments in their own words andopposed borrowing expressions from ancient poets. He criticized the excessiveattention to ornate language and tonal rhythms in the writing offive-character-per-line poetry. He maintained that spontaneously created poemsof good taste were most valuable. The expressions “natural” and “simple and unaffected” in later literary criticisms contain Zhong Rong’s ideas.

例句 Examples:

◎近任昉、王元长等,词不贵奇,竞须新事,尔来作者, 浸以成俗。遂乃句无虚语,语无虚字;拘挛补衲,蠹文已甚。但自然英旨,罕直其人。(钟嵘《诗品序》)

(近来的文人任昉、王融等,不注重语言创新,争相使用各种无人用过的典故,此后的作者逐渐形成了这样的习惯。于是没有不用典故的句子,没有无来历的字词;典故与自己的文字勉强牵合拼贴,对作品破坏严重。几乎很少有诗人能够写出不假雕饰地呈现自然美和真情实感的作品。)

Ren Fang, Wang Rong and someother writers of recent times have given no attention to linguistic innovationyet vied with each other for using literary allusions that no one else has everemployed. Subsequent writers have turned this practice into a habit. And so, allsentences must contain allusions, and every word and expression has to betraceable to some sources. Allusions are clumsily tacked onto the authors’ own words,severely damaging their works. There are few poets capable of producing worksthat display the pristine beauty of nature or their genuine sentiments. (ZhongRong: Preface to “The Critique of Poetry”)

◎所示书教及诗赋杂文,观之熟矣。大略如行云流水,初无定质,但常行于所当行,常止于所不可不止,文理自然,姿态横生。(苏轼《答谢民师书》)

(你给我看的信和诗赋杂文,我阅读得很熟了。大致都像飘动着的云和流动着的水一样,本来没有固定的形态,常常是应该流动时就流动,不能不停止时就停止,文章条理自然,姿态多变而不受拘束。)

I have read with great interestthe letters, poems, and essays you have sent to me. Broadly speaking, they areall like floating clouds and flowing waters, have no set form or structure, andfrequently flow when they should flow and remain still when they must stop. Thearticles are presented in a natural way and have multiple and uninhibitedstyles. (Su Shi: A Letter of Reply to Xie Minshi)

不学《诗》,无以言

bù xué shī, wú yǐ yán

If You Do Not Study The Book ofSongs, You Will Not Be Eloquent.

不学习《诗经》,就不能提高与人交流和表达的能力。孔子时代,《诗经》象征着一个人的社会身份与文化修养。不学习《诗经》,就无法参与君子间的各种交往,就不能提高语言表达能力。孔子对《诗经》与社会交往关系的论述,实际阐明了文学的教育功能或者说文学在教育中的重要地位。

In Confucius’ time, howwell one understood The Book of Songs was a sign of his social status andcultural attainment. If one did not study it, one would find it difficult toimprove one’s ability to express oneself and toconverse with people of high social status. Confucius’elaboration on the relationship between studying The Book of Songs and socialinteraction actually expounds on the importance of literature in education.

例句 Example:

◎尝独立,鲤过于庭。曰:“学《诗》乎?”对曰:“未也。”“不学《诗》,无以言。”(《论语?季氏》)

(孔子曾独自站在堂上,儿子伯鱼从堂下庭院经过,孔子问他:“学习《诗经》了吗?”伯鱼回答:“没有。”孔子说:“不学习《诗经》,就不会交流与表达。”)

Confucius was standing alone inthe central hall when his son Boyu walked across the front yard. Confuciusasked, “Have you studied The Book of Songs?” “Notyet,” was the reply. Confucius then said, “If you do not study it, you will not be able to express yourselfproperly.” (The Analects)

有德者必有言

yǒu dé zhě bì yǒu yán

Virtuous People Are Sure toProduce Fine Writing.

品德高尚的人一定有著述或妙文传世。儒家认为作家的人品(道德修养)与作品(文章价值)往往有内在的联系,品德高尚的人文章自然高妙,而善写文章的人却未必道德高尚,以此提出作家著述应以传播道德为使命,道德文章要相互统一。但后世儒家文士有时过于强调文章的道德作用与作家自身品德对文章的影响从而忽视了文学自身的创作特点与价值。

Virtuous people are sure towrite fine works which will be passed on to later generations. According toConfucianism, the moral character of a writer determines the value of his work,virtuous people would naturally write well, but those who wrote well might notnecessarily be virtuous. Therefore, authors should write to disseminate moralvalues; virtue and writings should be consistent. However, later Confucianscholars sometimes overemphasized the influence that ethics and the authors’ moralcharacter had on their writings to the neglect of the characteristics andvalues of literary creation per se.

例句 Examples:

◎子曰:“有德者必有言,有言者不必有德。”(《论语·宪问》)

(孔子说:“道德高尚的人,一定有名言传世;有名言传世的人,不一定道德高尚。”)

Confucius said, “Virtuouspeople are sure to have good writings or words to pass on to later generations,but it is not always true the other way round.” (TheAnalects)

◎丈夫处世,怀宝挺秀。辨雕万物,智周宇宙。立德何隐,含道必授。(刘勰《文心雕龙?诸子》)

(大丈夫活在世上,应该身怀才能,超群出众,雄辩的文辞可以摹写万物,周全的智慧可以穷尽宇宙奥秘。何须隐藏自己立德的志向,掌握了道就一定要广泛传授。)

A man of character shouldpossess exceptional capability and his eloquent expressions should portrayeverything truthfully. His great wisdom should enable him to explain all thingsunder heaven. He does not need to hide his aspirations to serve as a model ofvirtue. If he has come to a good understanding of Dao, he surely willdisseminate it extensively. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)

厉与西施,道通为一

lài yǔ Xīshī, dào tōng wéi yī

A Scabby Person and theBeautiful Lady Xishi Are the Same in the Eyes of Dao.

身长癞疮的人与美丽的西施,从道的角度看都可相通为一。厉,通“癞”,指长有癞疮的人。这是庄子关于审美相对性的著名论述。原意指身长癞疮的人与著名的美女没有区别,因为她们都是“道”的产物及体现。美丑的判断只是人们主观上的感觉而已,而且美丑之间还可相互转化。庄子的这一思想,强调从造物的本原看,美丑都符合道,都具有内在的同一性。这个思想启发后世的文艺评论家从相反相成的维度去看待自然万物与文学创作。

This is a famous statement madeby Zhuangzi on how beauty is relative. Originally it meant there was nodifference between a beauty and an ugly person, because they both came from andreflected Dao. The character 厉 meant 癞 (covered inscabs) in ancient Chinese. Whether a person is beautiful or ugly is but asubjective perspective in the mind of the beholder. Besides, beauty can turninto ugliness, and vice versa. Zhuangzi, from the perspective of the origin ofall things, stressed that beauty and ugliness are both in accord with Dao andare inherently the same. This idea has encouraged later literary critics tolook at all things, including literary works, from the perspective thatopposite things complement each other.

例句 Examples:

◎举莛与楹,厉与西施,恢诡谲怪,道通为一。(《庄子·齐物论》)

(细小的草茎与高大的庭柱,身长癞疮的人与美丽的西施,还有各种诡变怪异的事物,从道的角度来说都可相通为一。)

In the light of Dao, a smallblade of grass or a tall pillar, someone as ugly as a favus patient or someoneas beautiful as Lady Xishi, as well as crafty and strange things, are all thesame. (Zhuangzi)

◎大用外腓,真体内充。(司空图《二十四诗品·雄浑》)

(道表现于各种客观事物,而真实的精神本质却是内蕴其中的。)

Dao manifests in an array ofobjective things, but its genuine spirit lies within them. (Sikong Tu:Twenty-Four Styles of Poetry)

乐而不淫,哀而不伤

lè ér bùyín,āi ér bù shāng

Express Enjoyment WithoutIndulgence and Express Grief Without Excessive Distress

快乐而不放纵,悲哀而不伤身。原是孔子对于《诗经·周南·关雎》中有关青年男女爱情描写的评语,后世儒家将其作为倡导诗歌及其他文学作品中正平和、情理谐和之美的基本规范与评价标准。这一术语与儒家提倡的中庸思想相一致。近现代以来,其思想内涵也因受到时代潮流冲击而不断更新。

This is what Confucius said ofthe description of love between young men and women in the poem entitled “Guan Ju” in “Ballads of Zhounan,” The Book of Songs. Later Confucian scholars regarded this as abasic requirement for poems and other literary works to advocate impartiality,peace of mind, and harmony between emotion and reason, making it a criterionfor evaluating literary works. Its connotation is in accord with Zhongyong (thegolden mean) of Confucianism. In the more recent history, the connotation ofthe term has been continuously renewed to keep pace with the times.

例句 Examples:

◎《关雎》乐而不淫,哀而不伤。(《论语·八佾》)

(《关雎》快乐而不放纵,悲哀而不伤身。)

The poem “Guan Ju” expresses enjoyment without indulgence and grief without excessivedistress. (The Analects)

◎《国风》好色而不淫,《小雅》怨诽而不乱。(司马迁《史记?屈原贾生列传》)

(《国风》虽然描写爱恋情欲,但是并不放纵;《小雅》虽有怨恨与批评,但是并不煽动祸乱。)

Ballads from the states expresspassion of love without indulgence. Minor court hymns make complaints andcriticisms without inciting trouble. (Sima Qian: Records of the Historian)

声一无听,物一无文

shēng yī wú tīng,wù yī wú wén

A Single Note Does Not Compose aMelodious Tune, Nor Does a Single Color Make a Beautiful Pattern.

单一声响不构成动听的旋律,单一颜色不构成美丽的花纹。其本质强调文学艺术的美在于多样性的统一与和谐,只有在多样性的统一与和谐中才能创造美。这一命题后来构成中国古代文艺理论的重要原则,推动文艺的繁荣与发展。

This statement suggests that thebeauty of literature and art lies in the unity and harmony of diverse elements.It became an important principle in ancient Chinese theories on literature andart, and facilitated the development of literature and art.

例句 Examples:

◎声一无听,物一无文,味一无果,物一无讲。(《国语?郑语》)

(单一声响不能构成动听的旋律,单一颜色不能构成美丽的花纹,单一味道不能成为美食,单一事物无法进行比较。)

A single note does not compose amelodious tune; a single color does not form a beautiful pattern; a singleflavor does not make a delicious meal; and a single thing has nothing tocompare with. (Discourses on Governance of the States)

◎五色杂而成黼黻,五音比而成韶夏,五性发而为辞章,神理之数也。(刘勰《文心雕龙?情采》)

(多种颜色的丝才能绣成美丽的花纹,多种声音配合成动听的音乐,多种情感抒写成美妙的辞章,这是自然之理呀!)

It is natural that silk ofdifferent colors can be used to embroider a beautiful pattern, different notesto produce melodious music, and expressions of different feelings to present afine work of literary art. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving ofDragons)

象外之象,景外之景

xiàng wàizhī xiàng,jǐng wài zhī jǐng

The Image Beyond an Image, theScene Beyond a Scene

欣赏诗歌的过程中所产生的文本形象之外的第二艺术形象,是读者经联想产生的精神意象。前一个“象”“景”指诗歌作品中直接描写的物象和景象,后一个“象”、“景”则是指由此引发读者多方面联想所营造出的新的意象和意境。由道家与《周易》关于“言”(语言)、“意”(思想或意义)、“象”(象征某种深意的具体形象)三者关系的学说发展而来。魏晋至唐代的诗学倡导“象外之象,景外之景”,旨在追求文本之外的精神蕴涵和意象之美。这一术语同时也表现了中华民族的艺术趣味与审美境界。

Readers of poetry create imagesand scenes in their minds based on what they are reading. These are the readers’ imaginationsbased on what is depicted in the poems. The term comes from Daoist theoriesabout the relationships between discourses, ideas or meanings, and images thatsymbolize profound meaning in The Book of Changes. From the Wei, Jin to theTang dynasties, poetry critics sought “the image beyondan image, the scene beyond a scene” in order to pursuethe spiritual implications and the beauty of images that are beyond textualdescriptions. This term gives expression to the artistic and aesthetic tastesand ideals of the Chinese nation.

例句 Examples:

◎诗家之景,如蓝田日暖,良玉生烟,可望而不可置于眉睫之前也。象外之象,景外之景,岂容易可谈哉!(司空图《与极浦书》)

(诗歌所描写的景致,犹如蓝田蕴藏着美玉,玉的烟气在温暖的阳光中若隐若现,可以远远望见,但是不能就近清楚地观察。通过欣赏诗歌景象而产生的之外的景象,岂可容易表达出来呀!)

The imagery of poets is like thesunshine warming Lantian so that fine jades under its ground issue smoke: Theycan be seen from afar but not observed right before your eyes. The image beyondan image, the scene beyond a scene—are they not simply beyond words!(Sikong Tu: Letter to Wang Jipu)

◎盖诗之所以为诗者,其神在象外,其象在言外,其言在意外。(彭辂《诗集自序》)

(大概诗之所以成为诗,就在于神韵在物象之外,物象在语言之外,语言在意义之外。)

That which makes a poem a poemis a poetic appeal beyond the image, an image beyond the words and words sayingthings beyond their meaning. (Peng Lu: Preface to Collected Poems of Peng Lu)

信言不美,美言不信

xìn yán bù měi,měi yán bù xìn

Sincere Words May Not BePleasant to the Ear; Flowery Rhetoric May Not Be Sincere.

可信的话并不漂亮,漂亮的话多不可信。老子鉴于当时社会风气与文风的浮华不实,倡导返朴归真与自然平淡的生活方式和文学风格。魏晋时代,文人崇尚自然素朴,反对虚浮华丽的创作风气,出现了像陶渊明这样伟大的诗人,文艺创作也倡导真实自然的思想与风格。自此之后,中国古代文艺以素朴自然为最高的审美境界。

To address the extravagance insocial mores and in the style of writing of his time, Laozi advocated simpleand natural lifestyles and literary presentations. During the Wei and Jindynasties, men of letters valued natural and simple literary styles and wereopposed to extravagant and superficial styles. This line of thought led to theemergence of great poets like Tao Yuanming, and shaped literary writings toreflect direct thoughts and natural expressions. Subsequently, ancient Chineseliterature and art took simplicity and naturalness as the highest aestheticstandards.

例句 Examples:

◎信言不美,美言不信。善者不辩,辩者不善。(《老子?八十一章》)

(可信的话并不漂亮,漂亮的话多不可信。善良的人往往不能能言善辩,能言善辩的人往往不善良。)

Sincere words may not be pleasant to the ear; flowery rhetoric may not be sincere. A kind-hearted person may not be an eloquent speaker; a glib person is often not kind. (Laozi)

◎老子疾伪,故称“美言不信”,而五千精妙,则非弃美矣。(刘勰《文心雕龙?情采》)

(老子憎恶虚伪矫饰,所以他认为“漂亮的话多不可信”。但他自己写的《道德经》五千言,思想深刻而文笔优美,可见他并没有摒弃文章之美。)

Laozi detested pretense, so he said, “Flowery rhetoric words may not be sincere.”However, the 5,000-word Dao De Jing (another name of Laozi) he wrote is not only profound in ideas but reads beautifully. That means he was not opposed to writings using fine words. (Liu Xie: The Literary Mind and the Carving of Dragons)

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